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8. Preliminaries for the Materials Section


8.1. Index of abbreviations

{../..} Notation for alternatives either of which can be applied in the context
[ ] Insertions in citation text by A.G.
3d three-dimensional
4d four-dimensional: moving
->: {Jump / reference} to a Hypertext anchor ->:HYPERTEXT_MARK, p. 108
@: Hypertext anchor "
A.G. Andreas Goppold
Amerind: indigenous inhabitants of North and South America
BCE Before Common Era CE
CE Common Era, or A.D. ->:CALENDAR_CONV, p. 106
CA Cultural Anthropology
char/s character/s
CM Cultural Memory
CMA Cultural Memory Art ->:CMA_DEF, p. 145
CMM Cultural Memory Medium ->:CMM_TYPOLOGY, p. 140
CMS Cultural Memory System ->:CMS_DEF, p. 139
CMT Cultural Memory Technology ->:CMT_DEF, p. 141
CP Cultural Pattern ->:MORPHOLOGY, p. 128
CS Character System / Character Set
CT Cultural Transmission
dt: deutsch (german)
EE Evolutionary Epistemology
Encarta Encarta (1994): CD-ROM
engl: english
E.O. The objective and impartial Extraterrestrial Observer ->:EXTRA_OBSERVER, p. 113
ERT Entitiy, Relation, and Transition category scheme ->:ERT_TRIAD, p. 135
E&V Elementar- und Völkergedanken of Adolf Bastian ->:ADOLF_BASTIAN, p. 246
HA Haarmann (1992a), local abbrev. in: ->:WRITING, p. 175
HTML Hypertext Markup Language, standard format for WWW publications
Mm-encyc Multimedia Software Encyclopaedia, CD-ROM (1992)
NY New York (abbreviation in bibliography)
RMA ratiomorphic apparatus ->:RATIOMORPHIC, p. 122
SEMsphere = Semiosphere
URL Universal Resource Locator (WWW address)
Univ. University (abbreviation in bibliography)
WWW World Wide Web

8.2. Short glossary of terms

This section provides short definitions of the key terms of this study. Since there exists a wide variance of usages in the literature, this is the meaning as used in the present context.

Abjad: a type of phonographic writing system that denotes only consonants (Daniels 1996: xxxix).

Alphabet: phonographic writing, single phoneme mapping, with separate characters for consonants and vowels (CV-Principle) . (Haarmann 1992a), (Daniels 1996: xxxix).

Aoide, pl. Aoidoi: In ancient Greece, the name for the specialist CMBs. The best known Greek Aoidoi were Homer (Ilias, Odyssee), and Hesiodos (Theogony, Works and Days). In the present context, Aoide is used as generic for the CMBs of all traditions.

Character {set / system} , CS: a definite, delimited set of markings that are mutually disambiguated and which can be combined to form aggregates. The existence of an orthography (below) distinguishes a set from a system. A single character can only exist as an element of a CS. (Also called a signary in Daniels 1996: xliv).

Culture: because of the great disparity in definitions of culture (Gamst 1976, Jahoda 1992: 3-5, Kluckhohn 1980), this term is avoided if possible, and when used, in the definition given by Jahoda (1992: 5) characterized by the transmission aspect.

Cultural Memory CM: here equivalent with Cultural Transmission. In the generalized abstract sense: those processes and structures by which personal subjective memory material is exchanged between individuals and across generations and made available on an intersubjective basis. The diachronic aspect of cultural patterns. In subjective terminology, that faculty by which one individual can {reference to / learn from / participate in} the memory content of (an)other individual(s), even without direct personal contact, e.g. when they live in a distant place, or in the distant past.
->:CM_LIT, p. 139, ->:CULTURE_PATTERN, p. 132

Cultural Memory Art CMA: systematic use of dynamic somatic (and possibly extrasomatic) processes for CM. Dancing may be an example of CMA
->:CMA_DEF, p. 145

Cultural Memory Bearer CMB: The carriers and transmitters of the Cultural Memory . Trivially, every human member of a society is a Cultural Memory Bearer in at least some respect, in order to be a functioning part of that society. In non-writing cultures, there have been, and still are, specially trained classes and groups of CMB's, who serve(d) the most prominent and most vital function to preserve the essence and higher spiritual values of their cultures across and against the degradations of time. These were the Aoidoi of ancient Greece, the indian Rishis, the Griots of Africa, the norse Skalden, the welsh Bards, the Troubadours of the middle ages, and the Guslar of the Balkan. In the present context, Aoide is used as generic for the CMBs of all traditions.

Cultural Memory System CMS: Systematic theoretical account of those processes and structures by which the CM arises and operates. In a different aspect this is also called the culture pattern replicator system (after Benedict 1934), as the ways and means by which cultural patterns are exchanged and transmitted in populations and across generations . This is the central term and core concept of the present study .
->:CMS_DEF, p. 139

Cultural Memory Technology CMT: systematic use of static extrasomatic devices for CM. Writing is the prime cultural memory technology of civilizations.
->:CMT_DEF, p. 141

Cultural Transmission CT: Transmission of Cultural Patterns , i.e. of ontogenic (learned) material in populations ( synchronic) and across generations ( diachronic).
->:MORPHOLOGY, p. 128

Energy (Microsoft Encarta CD)
Energy, capacity of matter to perform work as the result of its motion or its position in relation to forces acting on it. Energy associated with motion is known as kinetic energy, and energy related to position is called potential energy. Thus, a swinging pendulum has maximum potential energy at the terminal points; at all intermediate positions it has both kinetic and potential energy in varying proportions. Energy exists in various forms, including mechanical (see MECHANICS), thermal (see THERMODYNAMICS), chemical (see CHEMICAL REACTION), electrical (see ELECTRICITY), radiant (see RADIATION), and atomic (see NUCLEAR ENERGY). All forms of energy are interconvertible by appropriate processes. In the process of transformation either kinetic or potential energy may be lost or gained, but the sum total of the two remains always the same.
A weight suspended from a cord has potential energy due to its position, inasmuch as it can perform work in the process of falling. An electric battery has potential energy in chemical form. A piece of magnesium has potential energy stored in chemical form that is expended in the form of heat and light if the magnesium is ignited. If a gun is fired, the potential energy of the gunpowder is transformed into the kinetic energy of the moving projectile. The kinetic mechanical energy of the moving rotor of a dynamo is changed into kinetic electrical energy by electromagnetic induction. All forms of energy tend to be transformed into heat, which is the most transient form of energy. In mechanical devices energy not expended in useful work is dissipated in frictional heat, and losses in electrical circuits are largely heat losses.
Empirical observation in the 19th century led to the conclusion that although energy can be transformed, it cannot be created or destroyed. This concept, known as the conservation of energy, constitutes one of the basic principles of classical mechanics. The principle, along with the parallel principle of conservation of matter, holds true only for phenomena involving velocities that are small compared with the velocity of light. At higher velocities close to that of light, as in nuclear reactions, energy and matter are interconvertible (see RELATIVITY). In modern physics the two concepts, the conservation of energy and of mass, are thus unified.

Energy (Encyclopaedia Britannica CD):
in physics, the capacity for doing work. It may exist in potential, kinetic, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear, or other various forms. There are, moreover, heat and work--i.e., energy in the process of transfer from one body to another. After it has been transferred, energy is always designated according to its nature. Hence, heat transferred may become thermal energy, while work done may manifest itself in the form of mechanical energy.
All forms of energy are associated with motion. For example, any given body has kinetic energy if it is in motion. A tensioned device such as a bow or spring, though at rest, has the potential for creating motion; it contains potential energy because of its configuration. Similarly, nuclear energy is potential energy because it results from the configuration of subatomic particles in the nucleus of an atom.

Language: in the, present study used in the restricted meaning of spoken verbal (natural) language as used by people to communicate among each other by the use of words. Non-spoken gesture-sign systems used as substitutes for spoken language are included, like deaf / mute systems for the disabled. It excludes music, and formal systems like mathematics.

Morphology / morphological : a systematic approach to the study of pattern. From Greek: morphae: form, gesture, position, pattern. (Rost 1862: 98). For contradistinction of form against { content / matter}. Based on Goethe's concept of morphology as used by Riedl (1987a) and Ruth Benedict's "patterns of culture" (1934: 49-56). Further elaborated under:
->:MORPHOLOGY, p. 128

Marking: 1) pattern {painted / scratched / inscribed / applied otherwise} {into / onto} a carrier material or 2) a 3-d form that a carrier material is shaped into, like a knot, a bead.
->:MARKING, p. 154

Memory: In the present context, memory is used as technical term for the basic constituent of a general pattern maintenance / propagation facility, in its structural and morphological aspects. In the sense of memory structure as contradistinct from content of memory (the memories). In the subjective view, a core constituent of consciousness. "Memory, process of storing and retrieving information in the brain". Literature: (Encarta: Memory), (Britannica: Memory) Schmidt (1991).

Non-phonographic writing : any writing system that does not employ the phonographic principle, eg. pictorial, iconic, ideographic ...

Orthography: a set of principles and rules for the formation and reading of aggregates of characters of a CS. (Daniels 1996: xliii).

Para-writing: any production of markings with an apparent cultural continuity, and intersubjective constancy (diachronic / synchronic extension), that has not been academically accepted as writing, but still appears to (have) serve(d) a purpose other than purely ornamental.

Phonographic writing , writing system encoding the sounds of a spoken language by using a mapping of {single / groups of} language phonemes onto a character set. (Haarmann 1992a)

Script: writing system. (Daniels 1996: xliv).

Sign: because of possible confusion over issues of syntax and semantics, this will be reserved for semiotic discussion only Its use in Daniels (1996: xliv) as synonymous with character is not followed here.
->:PEIRCE_SIGN, p. 154

Structure / structural : in twofold meaning:
1) general principle for organizing thoughts, ideas, and concepts, based on Kant's "Architektonik der reinen Vernunft" (Kant 1930, A832/B860): The Architectonic Method . Kant defined his Architektonik as the Art of System "die Einheit der mannigfaltigen Erkenntnisse unter einer Idee". Meaning: Architektonik is the ordering principle for the manifold under one unifying idea . Also: Goppold (1996b).
2) sytematic organizing method, based on Laughlin (1974: 5, 15)
->:STRUCTURAL, p. 130

Symbol: anything (a thing or event, an act or an object) that conveys meaning. (White 1987, 274). ->:SYMBOL, p. 119

Writing system : a notation system, (ie. a character set, and an orthography), and usage of non-ephemeral carrier materials (writing medium), used to convey and preserve language across time and space. (O'Connor 1996: 787), (Daniels 1996: xlv).

8.3. Conventions, Fonts, Spelling

8.3.1. Fonts used

Font for normal text: Times New Roman

Font for quotation text: arial
Quotation source (date: page): When citing a whole text paragraph, I am using this font to visually contrast it from the normal text. In this case, no quotation marks are used. Because WinWord® does not allow two different stylesheet fonts in the same paragraph, I cannot use this font for inline citations, therefore quotation marks and normal Times New Roman font are used in this case.
"This is a sample inline citation".

Font for Headlines:
, High order headlines are in Arial bold and low order headlines in Arial bold cursive

8.3.2. Non-english scripts, and foreign spelling

For the simplicity of the character set, with respect to the WWW version of this study, and ease of data communication in general (internet, email) , a simplified transcription of non-english words is used. While special fonts do exist for non-english scripts, they are not normed and cannot be expected to be installed on the computer of someone receiving an email or a www text . The Greek names and terms are written in latinized script with accents omitted. The letter aeta is written as ae; ay, ey and oy are converted to au, eu, ou, and o-mega and o-micron are both written as o, kappa is written as k. The names of Greek philosophers are written such as to reflect as closely as possible their original spelling (instead of the standard english usage pronounciation and spelling): Platon, Heraklit, Aristoteles.

8.3.3. Calendar conventions

Dechend (1997: 9): Behind the nursery tales which make pontiffs and shamans responsible for Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Mayan, etc. science, lurks the unconscious conviction of an archaic 'pre-logical' frame of mind which worked just the other way round from ours, according, somehow, to the counting of years B.C. and A.D., everything standing on its head along the negative side of Zero.

As Hertha v. Dechend indicates, a calendar convention is not just an innocuous arbitrary framework for keeping track of time, but it can also act as a cognitive filter that introduces a subtle bias into one's perception of historical developments. This problem cannot be left completely in the open, even if this is not the occasion to deal with this subject in depth. For the purposes of this study, the potential of negative bias toward BCE dates will be indicated by a slightly modified western European calendar convention in the following text: Dates after 1 CE (A.D.) will be indicated with their conventional numerical value, and dates before the CE zero point (BCE) as negative numbers, e.g. -600 denoting 600 BCE.

8.3.4. Gender terms

In the whole text, references to persons, observers, etc. are ment in the gender neutral terms of she/he, her/his, etc. For the sake of simplicity of writing, the more conventional male and female terms like "he", "his", and "she", "her", etc. are used as abbreviations, sometimes in male mode, sometimes in female mode .

8.4. Hyper- / Text structure design and organization principles


8.4.1. Visual and structural Enhancements of the Alphabet

The example in the following paragraph illustrates well the problem of a pure alphabetic transliteration of spoken language, and this is similar to what ancient alphabetic texts looked like:


The same paragraph, with normal spaces and interpunction, reads like this:

The alphabetical principle alone consists of a uniform linear representation of spoken language similar to a magnetic recording-tape, which would be extremely cumbersome to handle and read if it were for example presented in purely linear form like on a spool of paper tape. Early writing consisted in not more than that: rows upon rows (or columns upon columns) of letters linearly arranged on a scroll, or a tablet.

In the old times, such unbroken streams of alphabetic characters made phonetic literacy a matter of great skill (Landow 1992: 54). The deciphering of such texts necessitated that they were read aloud. Basic information retrieval facilities in form of visual and structural ordering devices were added to alphabetical text in the course of the centuries: at first spaces between words, then interpunctuation, and then outline methods like chapter headings, table of contents, and index, as they now form the standard format of an academic text. Illich (1988: 46, and 29-51), Landow (1992: 49, 54, 57), Bolter (1991: 63-81).

Illich (1988: 49): Thus, some 250 years before printing made it possible, to refer to the text by page number, a network of grids was laid over the book - a method that had nothing to do with the content itself.

The visual graphic ordering principles of text are a very important enhancement to the alphabetic writing principle because they serve to remedy a basic shortcoming of this technology. The alphabetic principle needs to be aided and supplemented by those methods. Moreover, the visual picture (the layout) of a text is an important device for the conceptual organization of thought processes of the author. (Goppold 1994: 280-281). Structural organization principles of ideas like that outlined by Kant in his "Architektonik der reinen Vernunft" [393] serve to give a standardized canon of form for the presentation of scientific material. With the presently emerging hypertext technology, these ordering principles can still be augmented. The text structure design conventions of this work are influenced by the technical possibilities and the limitations of the Microsoft WinWord® outline editing and outline navigation facility.

8.4.2. WWW hypertext design

The structural potential of hypertext can extend and complement that of a linear printed text in book format. Further literature: Kuhlen (1991: 28-40), Hammwöhner,[394] Landow (1992) [395]. Landow estimates that hypertext brings changes to text production that are as profound as the printing press brought to the formerly manuscript book culture (1992: 24-70).

Landow (1992: 19): Electronic text processing marks the next major shift in information technology after the development of the printed book.

To fully utilize that potential, a concurrent design methodology is used to make the WinWord® text marker facility easily convertible to HTML with an extractor and converter program (a filter). It is safe to make the prediction that in a few years, HTML (or a more suitable version/derivative thereof, like XML) will be the standard mode of reporting academic work . (Landow 1992: 35). In the present design methodology, the hypertext markers are usable in a double role to serve as visual markers to facilitate reading in the printed text, and as identifiers for the automatic filters which construct hyper-links to other documents . In complement with the structural hierarchical outline method, the hypertext serves to indicate threads of thought which run through the whole work.

8.4.3. Hypertext markers

The hypertext principle used in this study provides a structural ordering scheme of text that can be technically supported with the functionality of WinWord® and WWW-HTML browsers. The present text is written such that it can be readily converted with a filter tool from WinWord® into WWW format. For this a few style conventions need to be introduced. There are two types of Hypertext markers:
@: Hypertext anchor and
->: Hypertext reference

Example of a hypertext anchor:

This indicates that HYPERTEXT_MARK is a reference label that can be automatically converted with a filter program into a HTML hypertext address. For reason of easy visual identification in the printed text, the hypertext anchor is usually located with a left offset-aligned position.

Example of a hypertext reference to the above hypertext mark:

This system of markers can be automatically converted with a filter program into a HTML hypertext reference. In the present printed version, it indicates the page number where the corresponding hypertext anchor is located. In this example, it is page 108.

8.4.4. Quotations of WWW publications

WWW publications cannot be cited with page number, since the HTML layout doesn't preserve a uniform page sequence. Therefore, they have to be cited by the URL of a chapter or WWW page. For example, here George Landow's hypertext pages: (URL)

8.4.5. Robert Darnton: the pyramidal book

Darnton (1999) [396]:
I am not advocating the sheer accumulation of data, or arguing for links to databanks—so-called hyperlinks. These can amount to little more than an elaborate form of footnoting. Instead of bloating the electronic book, I think it possible to structure it in layers arranged like a pyramid. The top layer could be a concise account of the subject, available perhaps in paperback. The next layer could contain expanded versions of different aspects of the argument, not arranged sequentially as in a narrative, but rather as self-contained units that feed into the topmost story. The third layer could be composed of documentation, possibly of different kinds, each set off by interpretative essays. A fourth layer might be theoretical or historiographical, with selections from previous scholarship and discussions of them. A fifth layer could be pedagogic, consisting of suggestions for classroom discussion and a model syllabus. And a sixth layer could contain readers' reports, exchanges between the author and the editor, and letters from readers, who could provide a growing corpus of commentary as the book made its way through different groups of readers.

A new book of this kind would elicit a new kind of reading. Some readers might be satisfied with a study of the upper narrative. Others might also want to read vertically, pursuing certain themes deeper and deeper into the supporting essays and documentation. Still others might navigate in unanticipated directions, seeking connections that suit their own interests or reworking the material into constructions of their own. In each case, the appropriate texts could be printed and bound according to the specifications of the reader. The computer screen would be used for sampling and searching, whereas concentrated, long-term reading would take place by means of the conventional printed book or downloaded text.

Far from being utopian, the electronic monograph could meet the needs of the scholarly community at the points where its problems converge. It could provide a tool for prying problems apart and opening up a new space for the extension of learning. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has provided support for several initiatives in this direction. One, a program for converting dissertations into electronic monographs, has just been launched by the American Historical Association. Another, for producing more ambitious e-books, is now being developed by the American Council of Learned Societies. Others are in the works. The world of learning is changing so rapidly that no one can predict what it will look like ten years from now. But I believe it will remain within the Gutenberg galaxy—though the galaxy will expand, thanks to a new source of energy, the electronic book, which will act as a supplement to, not a substitute for, Gutenberg's great machine.

[393] Structure ->:PRELIMINARY_DEF, p. 103
[394] Hammwöhner: (URL) (URL)
[395] Landow: (URL)
[396] Darnton (1999) (URL)?19990318005F

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