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3. Time, Memory, Knowledge and Information Technology


© Andreas Goppold
Prof. a.D., Dr. Phil., Dipl. Inform., MSc. Ing. UCSB

The Noo-Series: Vol III

3.1. Preview of Vol III of the Noology - Series

Vol III of the Noology - Series is intended to have a more technical bent than the other volumes which are more philosophically oriented. In Vol III, the themes of: Time, Memory, and Knowledge will be reiterated towards specific approaches of Information Technology .

For the present purpose, the following is a short preview of that work. Here actual approaches at constructing and implementing Phono-Semantic Tension Fields or Sem{e/aio}phonic Fields are devised. Consider this as an alpha-preview version of what might become if sufficient time, expertise and funding may be applied to the project. This would necessarily be a large team effort involving many person years of programming and experience.

3.2. What is Noology ?

The word Noology derives from the greek words "noos" or "nous" and "logos" .212.212. [212] The meaning of both is quite similar. "Noos" is a term roughly covering the semantic field of the present colloquial words:
{"know/ing/ledge" [213] / mind / understanding / intelligence / thinking}.
The word "logos" has a very similar semantic field, but with a slight bent towards systematics and ordering. For this reason, all the names of present-day sciences are constructed by using some field indicator like "psycho-" with the appendage "-logy" . The meaning of "logos" is further defined by its relation to the latin term "ratio" which today re-appears in the word "rational/ity" . [214] The main aspect which distinguishes "logos" from "noos" is this admixture of "ratio" which also means proportion, measure. But that is more due to the medieval philosophical usage which was dominated by a certain rendering of latin terms, [215] and was not quite that distinct in the times of ancient Greece when those people lived whom we identify as the founding fathers of philosophy: Thales, Anaximandros, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Heraklitos, Parmenides, Sokrates, Platon, and Aristoteles. [216] That was between ca. 600 BC and 300 BC.

Noo-logy thus outlines a systematic study and (attempt at) organization of everything dealing with knowing and knowledge. Of course there are already quite a few philosophical and scientific schools dealing with these matters, like Epistemology, Knowledge Organization, Classification, Library Science, and Mind Sciences. What is the use of this special term, and what can be offered with it? I am certainly not proposing to build up an entirely new scientific and philosophical enterprise from scratch. One main reason for using some special vocabulary is simply a necessity of dictionary ordering or rather, dictionary confusion. Everyone who has some experience with the history of philosophy realizes that the terms used throughout the ages have seen a quite large variation of meaning such that it is very difficult to really outline the semantic field of any of them clearly. Of course this is partly due to the matter itself: mind, intelligence, understanding, etc. are still quite elusive subjects, even after 2500 years of philosophical examination. The other reason why I use some special terms (more will soon come) is that they cannot easily be mis-translated. When I read english translations of german philosophical texts, and vice versa, I am often appalled by the wide gap between the renderings of german terms like "gedächtnis", " geist", " vernunft", etc. with some english counterparts like "memory", "spirit", " mind", " reason", intelligence, intellect, etc. This has in the past given much difficulty for the understanding between german and anglo schools of philosophy. Especially with works by Hegel, Schelling, Fichte (the idealist school) and later, the works of Heidegger.

The other reason why I use this specific term is to indicate a certain orientation on which I want to focus:
"Time, Memory, Knowledge and Information Technology".
Part of this enterprise may be called philosophical, but another important part deals with technical information matters. I have a background in computer science and I have done quite a bit of programming myself. I have also dealt with philosophy, cultural anthropology, semiotics, and a few other fields like (paleo-)linguistics, neuro sciences, and pre-history of civilization and culture. This is a specific background of knowledge for which I have not found any useful reference in any of the scientific and philosophical schools that I have encountered. So I am forced in some way to "roll my own" . Noology thus indicates that I put a strong emphasis on the "living" memory aspect of knowledge, and its interrelation with time, and the phenomenological aspects of time, ie. reminiscence and forgetting. In my opinion, these aspects have been dealt with inadequately by the physicalistic oriented natural sciences. More on this later.

3.3. LaKnowledge or LhWissen

... or: Time, Memory, Knowledge and Information Technology

The terms "LaKnowledge" or "LhWissen" are a shorthand for this specific orientation on "Time, Memory, Knowledge and Information Technology". It is my impression that there is some kind of a "missing link" between the hard sciences and technologies dealing with Information Machinery, and the "softball" approaches of philosophy when it comes to matters of knowledge, thinking, memory, time, and Information. This missing link shows up most distinctly in the role of human memory. No scientific or other endeavor would be possible without human memory, but this is hardly ever found in any scientific text dealing with time and information. [217] The other gap which seems problematic for me is the frequent confusion of knowledge and information. With this I will deal now:

3.3.1. Information, Real-Life Action, and Time
Probably everyone dealing seriously with knowledge and information matters will already know that the mathematical Shannon definition of information and its many interesting applications in concurrent information technology have little relevance as to matters of knowledge in real-life or real-business application situations. As opposed to the mathematical information concept, application of knowledge in real-life situations is something much harder to define, since it is essentially a human-factors affair. Among the many efforts to brindge that gap between "information" and "knowledge" I believe that a valuable approach was presented by Rainer Kuhlen who has coined the adage: "information is knowledge in action" (Information ist Wissen in Aktion). Of course this is not a definition in formal terms and therefore the mathematically oriented computer science and computer information community could not make very much use of this. But it introduces the notion of action. Action belongs to the domain of the "real world" because "facts" are created by "actions" . And every action has to take place in some measure of time, and as we all know, time is always too short, especially when some kind of action is required quickly. Therefore it is often so that (no action = false action). This introduces at least one stringent formal requirement for information technology, that the necessary information required for any action has to be delivered quick or "asap" := "as soon as possible", "at your fingertips", as so many information technology advertisements claim.

3.3.2. The crucial factor of human memory
The other crucial factor of LaKnowledge is human memory. Again, there is a lot of confusion around memory going around in the information industry, because someone at some unfortunate moment decided to reference the various computer storage technologies as "memory" like RAM, while it is nothing but "data storage". Human memory must by no means be confused with computer data storage. This misunderstanding has served to render much of concurrent information technology pretty much mis-informing. In some respect, this is also due to a congential deformation of the mathematical foundations of computer science (Informatics in computerese). All the while computing is crucially dependent on time factors, its mathematical foundation is pretty oblivious of time. This can be demonstrated with a very simple, striking example. Let us take any programming code line like this:
$variable = $variable +1 ;
This is actually mathematically false, since (A =/= A + 1) as everyone has learned in school. By the identity axiom, A must at all times be equal to A. The requirement "at all times" can also mean "without regard for time" and this can be called the Platonic foundation of mathematics , and without it, mathematics would be senseless. The proposition (A=A) is so to say the cornerstone of all mathematics and with it, of all exact sciences. Of course, there is the "t" factor for time in mathematics. Properly written, the above code line would have to be:
$variable[t+1] = $variable[t0] +1 ;
This indicates that a time step of computer processing lies in between the right and the left hand side of the program statement. The first example above is just a shorthand, but it (introduces / indicates) a kind of obliviousness towards time factors in computer science since the engineers always assume that some later generation of computers will overcome any computational time barriers that may exist now.

3.3.3. Computers, Programming, Memory, and Time
In a certain respect, computers are "time machines" , meaning that computer programs formulate strictly and rigrorously highly complex sequences of time-step-actions. On closer examination, one of the main sources of programming errors is that no real good formal means exist to ensure that a mis-matching of time steps is prevented. That is: It is in practical programming usage very hard to ensure that a variable or more general, an area of data storage, has been properly initialized or declared, before it is referenced. Conversely, this means that one part of a program expects some data value, which has not yet been produced (or something different than expected by the program was produced) by some different part of the program. While the control structure of the program is a formal mathematical affair that can be validated by a compiler, the sequencing of computing actions is given by the interaction of this control structure and the data. And there is no way of mathematically insuring that the right kinds of data are available for any subroutine of the program to be processed correctly. All approaches to ameliorate this fundamental problem, like Structured Programming, Software Engineering (SWE), Object Oriented Programming (OOP), etc. have not proven to give any better overall results. These methods introduce their own specific drawbacks and complexities, mostly through overblowing the size of the code, and the complexification of the syntactic rules which force the programmer to take all kinds of detours for solving a computational problem. [218]

3.3.4. Mathematics as Platonic Affair
But there is a deeper problem for the mathematics underlying computer science. Mathematics is, by the history of ideas, a Platonic affair. (Not to be confused with a platonic love affair). By Platonic I mean, that Platon the ancient Greek philosopher actually didn't quite believe in time. He was mainly concerned and strived for "a timeless universe of eternal ideas which is where resides all the truth, the goodness, and the beauty" (Das Wahre, Gute und das Schöne) [219] . Somehow this fancyful timeless universe of otherwise quite impossible ideals made it through the times into two real-life implementations: One is the Christian Heaven of God and the Angels (as well as Jewish and Islamic variations thereof) and the other is the Mathematical Realm of Absolute Truth. [220]

I am not concerned with theology here. [221] But the other application poses a real problem. Mathematics is entirely oblivious of human memory. Although mathematics is unquestionably a trade that requires extremely stringent human memory training to be proficient in, the human memory itself doesn't show up anywhere in its formulas and equations. I pull the arguments together now: Computer science as Informatics as a specialized application of mathematics has as yet no relevant place for human memory. But human memory is one of the most crucial factors of programming. That means: The discrepancy between (the very limited and fallible) human memory capacity and the formal rigor and complexity of computer programs has caused that present-day computing is a quite unreliable affair, as everyone can attest to when using a MS Windows system (or any other computer program system for that matter).

3.3.5. The Typology of Programming Errors
The typology of programming errors can be summed up in these three main factors: Storage Synchronization Errors
As mentioned above, a main cause of programming errors is due to the fact that some programmer had forgotten that s/he had declared a variable here different than s/he used it there, or that a pointer had no reference, or something of the like. This can be called broadly "Storage synchronization errors" . Logical Interdependency Errors
The next class of errors can be called "Logical interdependency errors" . This means that the program logic is flawed because there are overlapping or incomplete subsections of the boolean logic driving the code. In programming code, this often shows up as monumental edifices of if .. elsif elsif ... constructions. Documentation / Specification Errors
Another main class of errors is that the applied subroutine or subprogram does something else (or has some other preconditions) than what the documentation says or what the programmer interprets the documentation to mean. This applies as well to program libraries that are supplied by a compiler vendor, as to those routines which the programmer/s write/s themselve/s. In large project teams dividing up the task of a project, this is a very common problem. But it applies as well to one single person when one has written a function library and one has forgotten later what the exact preconditions and what the exact workings of a function are.

3.3.6. The Inequality Axiom of LaKnowledge (A' =/= A)
In a short aphorism, the difference between Mathematics and Information Science and the LaKnowledge of Noology is the "Inequality Axiom" . When human memory comes into play, then the following statement is true:
(A[t+i] =/= A[t0]) or otherwise written as:
(A' =/= A)
This means: when one has observed something "A" once, and then observes it a second time (meaning one recognizes it as "A" ), then a paradoxy arises: Although A' is recognized as belonging to some class "A" , it is also identified as being "not A" because one remembers "A" from the first encounter and it is unquestionably clear that A[t+i] is not the same as "A[t0]" . This is because there is the memory of "A" present, and one knows intuitively that the newly presented A' is not the memory of "A[t0]" .
An exception to this general rule is the so called "deja vu" encounter, when one thinks that something very unusual must have happened, like entering a time tunnel: One believes to be teleported to some other time in the past, when exactly the same sequence of things occurred in the same setting with the same persons. A similar formulation of this is: While the common sense tacitly assumes a (more or less) identity of common objects through time (eg. my car, my house, my pen), it is quite startled when some sequence of action happens exactly the same at time [t+i] as it did at time [t0]. The exception to this are of course computers, mechanic automation, and less strictly, ceremonies and rituals, which are expected to follow at least a general rule, even while it is assumed that some of the environment and some of the participating persons may change.

3.3.7. Bergson or Heraklitean time
Time, in all philosophical systems adhering to the mathematical, physical, or Newtonian / Einstein thought system, is just one dimension in a coordinate system, which together with the spatial dimensions make up the space / time framework and can be mapped on Cartesian coordinates. When we bring human memory into the system, the concept of time changes drastically: This concept can also be called Bergson or Heraklitean time, for the philosophers who are probably best known for outlining its specific differences to mathematical time. Friedrich Nietzsche also devoted some effort to these paradoxa. In the objective Newtonian / Einstein conception of time, human memory is simply disregarded, it is a phenomenon of the observer, or of subjectivity.
->:GOTT_GEDANC, p.45

In the real world, no thing "A" at time [t0] is ever equal to its appearance at time [ti], even if we see an object "A" , a chair, or a pen right now, and then one second later. Physically, that is due to the second law of thermodynamics or the entropy law. Phenomenally (in the mind) it is the difference between observing something "A[t0]" for the first time, and then observing the A[ti] in superposition with the memory of "A[t0]" . This process is quite unconscious, but without the effect of memory, recognition would not be possible. This is a paradox which can not be equated away.

This was a slight degression and we return to the current aim: How to arrive at some tools and techniques for LaKnowledge.

3.4. The Noologic Domain: Categorization and Category Systems.

The noologic domain (or short: the domain) is the term used in my system of Noology for everything which can or could be known . The noologic domain is also colloqually known as "the universe and the mind", ie the domain consists of everything:
1) that we perceive in and about the (external) world, and that
a) exists factually, or
b) could exist possibly, probably, and/or according to "the laws of nature".
2) that we perceive as (processes in / apparitions of) our minds,
that can or could appear somehow in our minds as feelings, thoughts, ideas, phantasies, wishes, emotions, impulses, etc.

The philosophical term categorization is used here in a specific meaning: Categorization is that mental framework by which we make our most fundamental distinctions of the noologic domain. Systematically, categorization is the design of a category system . In Noology, a category system is a construct of ideas. This is also a question of philosophical debate, since the Platonic schools in Mathematics and Natural Science assume that humans can only trace and track a pre-existent ordering of the Kosmos [222] .

The use of a category system is to specify any given item out of the noologic domain exhaustively by its attributes, and ideally, it should be set-theoretically clean. This means that all items of the domain categorized by our system should form disjunct sets. (In common sense philosophy this is called pigeon-holing). Something of the like is the rationale behind the information technology of the relational DBMS which is the machinery behind the current SQL query languages and most commercial Database systems. The difficulty of correctly designing the logical structure of a relational DBMS, called "normalizing" has the same logical reason that makes a categorization so difficult. Since Noology is not dealing with "ideal" worlds, but with organizing the knowledge of the messy world of humans and society, its category systems cannot give those ideal clean sets. Rather, it works with fuzzy sets. (More on this later).

Categorization is the most crucial task for setting up a knowledge system. If you have the wrong categorization then your knowledge system will most likely be skewed, flawed, or outright useless. Needless to say, a good category system is hard to come by. [223]

Many philosophers have come up with many different types of category systems and have given their reasons for designing them. Up to now, no philosopher had information machinery in mind when he designed his system. So for the present purpose, the design criteria for the category system are influenced by these factors:
1) the human mind and the human memory (or mnemonomic factors). [224]
2) the various types and kinds of the universe of concepts which we want to categorize
3) technical requirements and capabilities of the available information machinery.

It is a philosophical problem whether there exist "natural" categories. My working assumption about this is that any categories are imposed on the world by:
1) our nervous system (which is of course biological, and in some sense also natural) and by
2) our thinking patterns and habits (which are partly cultural, ie dependent on upbringing and education) but also subtly influenced by what our nervous system takes for granted before we even start to think.

We can think of categories as "flavored containers" somewhat like variable types of programming. There we have integers, floating, strings, arrays, truth values, and the OOP languages go so far as to construct a specific object type for any data item.

3.5. The Big W's

... Where, When, Who, hoW, What, Why, Whatfor, Whatwith, Whatagainst

The mnemonomic factor of Noology is expressed best by the famous dictum "five plus minus two chunks" [225] . Ie. a category system should not have more than about 5 to 7 basic categories, while of course there can be many more subcategories. Natural language gives a few basic patterns for the Noologic instrumentarium since it has served the human mind and memory factors for countless ages to prove that it works. The interesting factor there is that so many and so different languages exist, and all seem to be workable somehow, since the peoples that used them, survived up to our day.

The germanic languages give a "natural" instrumentarium for categorization with the "W" questions. Here are the German, English and Greek equivalences:
1) Wo? - Where? - pou
2) Wann? - When? - póte
3) Wer? - Who? - tís
4) Wie? - hoW? - pae
5) Was? - What? - tí
6) Warum, für Welchen Zweck? - Whatfor?
7) mit Welchen Mitteln? - Whatwith?
8) gegen Welche Widerstände - Whatagainst?
9) Woher? - Where from? - póthen
10) Wohin? - Where to? - poi
This is already a categoric framework that can carry us quite far. But for now, I don't want to delve too much into matters of content, but will deal more with the logical structure of the framework, or with the empty categories. [226]

3.6. Phonetic categories

3.6.1. A phonetic category framework.
I will first construct an empty framework for a database retrieval system, which has a mnemonic factor. It is more or less given "naturally" by the capabilities of the human phonetic instrumentarium. This has a slight slant towards indoeuropean and semitic languages, but I want to construct a framework that can be represented as ASCII strings and that is not possible with extra-european phonetics for which we would need a Unicode representation.

Vowel Domain:

(1-8) a i ä e ü ö o u

The vowels "ä" , "ü" and "ö" are from the german language, but they reflect the greek distinction of alpha and eta, omicron and omega, even though the sound values may be different. [227]

Consonant Domain:
key name phonetic value / pronounciation example
y aleph english: yes, german: ja
q qof arabic qof
k ka english: king
g ge german/ english: gold
r ro german: rad, rot
rch rch german: acht, nacht, wacht, krach
ch chi greek: chimaira, german: nicht, licht, gicht
h ha german/ english: hunger
j je english: join
sch sch german: schön, schluss
s sigma english: soon
z zeta german: zeit
l lambda english: lip
d delta english: do
t tau english: tea
th theta english: thought
f phi english: food
b beta english: brain
p pi english: pod
w we german: wein
n nu english: noon
m mu english: moon

Vowels and Consonants are arranged in a table:























By use of this construction method we have the benefit that we can name anything that we want with a string of pronounceable words. This is primarily a memory requirement (also called mnemotechnics), because it is harder to remember something for which one has no pronounceable word. (There are exceptions: Feelings and physical sensations, like smells, of course can be remembered very well without words). The string formation follows the regular expression rules and always starts with a consonant. By using y = aleph as first consonant (which is also a vowel) we can allow words that would otherwise start with a vowel. In hebrew (mytho-poetic) usage, the aleph is called the mother/father of all sounds, because all pronounced sound formation must start with a breath (ruach, pneuma). The use of "y" as key fits also well to the technical requirements. It must be an ASCII consonant that is in the ordinary 7-bit character set available on every keyboard, and it must not collide with any other of the characters in the set. Because y is also used in indo-european languages as both vowel and consonant, this makes it a suitable candidate.

By this scheme we can form all words of the indoeuropean language system, which serves well for constructing a dictionary of all entities of the noologic domain.

Another requirement for a category system is that it should be frugal, ie that it should be easily memorable. A table of (8 * 22 ) = 176 elements is manageable, but something less is desirable. The decimal multiplication table has 100 elements, and that is about the memory capacity that one can assume for normal iq primary school students. To make these tables available to the general public, the memory limits of a normal iq person were of course one of the main stringent constraints. As can be observed in actual language use, most indoeuropean languages don't use the full vowel or consonant table, so that in effect the actual size of the table comes more close to 100 elements. Also some vowels and consonants are used more sparingly than others.

In most cases, the standard keyboard vowels: "a i e o u" (five chunks) will be sufficient. [228]

3.6.2. Reference to ancient memory technologies
This table was constructed with reference to the ancient memory technologies of the distant past, before writing was invented. That means those at least hundred thousand years during which some kind of human culture was transmitted by memory alone. The last 3-5000 years of writing civilization are very short compared with that time depth. All those times, mnemotechnics was a prime cultural necessity, because people had to memorize all the things that were worth remembering in their minds only. I have extensively researched on these techniques and written about them in some of my publications. [229] From these times, only some rudiments have passed down to us, and probably with distorted meanings and connotations. For example the well known vedic mantra "aoum" contains the primary vowels (the in-between-vowels can be produced when one lets the sounds slide into each other). Likewise for the christian mantra "amen" . In ancient greece, the word for hearing was "aio" , and the "aoide" was the ancient memory bearer, the singer of the ancient lore (like the Homeric epics and Hesiod's works). "audae" was the ancient greek word for the recital of those hymns. In the germanic tradition, the god "odin" was the bearer of the memory knowledge. In Africa, there exists a similar tradition of "griots" .

In order to honor this tradition, I have made the "m" the last sound of the consonants, by this way we can construct the "aoum" with a (nearly) diagonal cross-section through the table.
The word "aio" is of course contained in the first line.

3.6.3. The order of consonants
The order of consonants is given somewhat approximately how they are produced in the vocal tract: First come the "deep throat" sounds, of which the semitic languages have a richer variation than indo-european. Here the sound is produced by the voice box only without use of the tongue. Then come the gutturals. The tongue moves from the deeper posterior parts of the palate upwards and frontwards, until it reaches the dentals, labials and nasals. The "m" is a half-closure, as the air stream switches from the mouth to the nose, and for this reason it was used in the "aoum" mantra, to let the humming sound drift off into infinity. Of course the spiritual aspects of these techniques are of no concern here, but the ordering function can profit from the ancient principles.

3.6.4. The nesting of categories
So far, this table gives us only an empty framework but this is a powerful technique to generate unambiguous strings with the regexp principle, which is very important for computer processing. As to the task of categorization, we have a rich literature of different systems that try to "pigeonhole" the world knowledge for bibliothecary uses into sets, by which the library stacks and catalogs can be ordered in some manageable way. This task is more commonly known as classification. Usually, these schemes give only very rough distinctions, like the Dewey classification system, but here the governing principle is more to provide a financially adequate system (ie cheap enough) for ordering the library stacks and catalogs. It depends more often than not purely on the interpretation of the library personnel into which class a book will be more or less properly fitted. And more often than not, a book is classified in this way never to be found again.

Since so many category and classification systems have been devised, it is not really useful to add yet another version to this mountainous material. It has long become obvious that the world of knowledge can not be fitted into a table of any memorable dimension and to hope that these categories will ensure that the material will be adequately positioned and then, by use of these categories, that it can be retrieved. The problem of retrieval is that a researcher often thinks that the item s/he is looking for, is located under quite different categories, than where it is actually stored. This problem will not concern us for the moment. Instead I will embark on something that today is technically easier than what the philosophers of the past had to their avail: The nesting of categories.

The nesting of categories is a quite ancient technique for which Aristoteles gave a famous quote: "man is a featherless biped animal". When we be analyse this with a class structure graph, we get the nesting, which is implicit (hidden) in the quote of Aristoteles:

(class animals
(class birds, attr:feathers, attr:2ped),
(class no_birds, attr:no_feathers, (attr:0_ped | attr:4_ped | attr:6_ped | ... | attr:1000_ped),
(class man, attr:no_feathers, attr:2_ped),

By this logic, man belongs to the super-class "animals" and to sub-class "no_birds" , by virtue of attr:no_feathers, and man is unique there by attr:2_ped.

Actually this classification makes sense only in the improbable case that all the scientists were birds. For all the rest of us, it is just nonsense.

In all the sciences, the nesting of categories is well developed and presents a formidable edifice, like the classification of organisms. The principle is to identify a class by a certain set of attributes, like:
(class1.1 attr1 attr2 attr3 )
and then identify a super-class by a subset of these attributes like:
(class1 attr1 attr2 )
The rationale is that "attr1" and "attr2" are of a more general kind, and "attr3" is a more specific kind.
Likewise one can define different subclasses with differing sets of further attributes like:
(class1.2 attr1 attr2 attr3a )
(class1.3 attr1 attr2 attr3b )
(class1.1.1 attr1 attr2 attr3 attr4 )
(class1.2.1 attr1 attr2 attr3a attr4 )
and so forth.

In present information technology, this classification technique is the principle of "object oriented programming" and is also called "ontology" in current www organizing systems.
Unfortunately, time and again, it appears necessary to reorder these categorizations according to different principles. To implement these changes in the textbooks and library systems is usually a quite monumental task. But with present data processing technology, this has become much easier.

So we can view the above table actually as a stack of tables which can be searched with computers. Each table houses a number of strings which are [primary, secondary, tertiary ... ] retrieval keys for a database system. Permuting and reordering these strings is technically quite easy, and with the capacity of computers also within the technical and practical usability. After all, the time factor is crucial and one must search any number of permutations and combinations to find a specific item when one is not sure where it is exactly stored. In computer science, this topic appears for example under the title "inverted database" .

3.6.5. Fuzzy categories and fuzzy logic
For 2300 years, from around 330 BC (the time of Aristoteles) to around 1970 the scientific progress of humanity dealt mainly with disjunct sets. [230] This is the base of Aristotelian logic, and the Boolean logic which drives our computers.
The principle is: Any item X either belongs to some class or set Q or it does not . In formal terms, this is expressed like this:
(X e Q) || (X (not)e Q)
e := means: being element of a set, or (not)e [231]
|| := means: exclusive OR (technically: XOR)

The relational DBMS technology is an implementation to extend this principle to practical data processing applications. Example:
An item X which is characterized by attributes (attr1, attr2, attr3, attr4, ...) is either present in a warehouse Q or it is not.

Some time around 1970, Lotfi Zadeh invented a technique called "Fuzzy Logics" . Since that time, there has been a shift in focus to things that cannot be categorized according to the rigid disjunct set theory. For example:

"Day" means: attr: sun is shining, stars are not visible, it is bright.
"Night" means: attr: sun is not shining, stars are visible, it is dark.

"Morning" and "Evening" are terms for describing specific phases of the diurnal circle, where the attributes are neither completely dark nor really bright, some stars are visible (like the proverbial Venus), etc. But it is not possible to exactly specify with binary values the attributes which characterize "Morning" or "Evening" . Their attributes form a "fuzzy set" .

3.6.6. Fuzzy Phonetics
The same is the case with the phonetics that are the base of the alphabet. While the alphabetical letters give the impression of outlining a clearly distinct set, the sounds they represent are a quite fuzzy set. This is more apparent with the vowels. In the english language, the "a" can stand for almost any vowel sound, depending on context. It is also possible to slide through the above sequence of "a i ä e ü ö o u" and produce all sorts of intermediate sounds which can belong to either one or the other vowel class. Similarly with many consonants: l and r can slide into each other (this is why the Chinese people have such a difficulty to distinguish them since for them it is only one sound), f and w, b and w, d and t, etc. Therefore such similar consonants are grouped by linguistics in classes like nasals, labials, dentals, glottals, etc. In this way, the different variations of phonetic values of characters of the alphabet are more close to fuzzy sets than to the strict disjunct set theory. This is another reason for the letter classification presented here. The issue is of course how to adequately deal with the information technology of fuzzy sets.

3.7. Semantic Fields / Sem{e/aio}phonic Networks

The following is an introduction for using a Fuzzy Phonetics model , called Sem{e/aio}phonic Networks , or Sem{e/aio} phonic Tension Fields, which go in the German text under Semantische Spannungsfelder , or Semantische Rhizome .

3.7.1. A Hypothetical Sem{e/aio}phonic Network of Aoide Vocabulary The Greek Root Sound fields
Linguistics has done much work to discover the drifting patterns of sound and meaning fields of languages in the centuries and millennia of their development. The hypothesis stated above was that the Aoidoi had a greater role in the formation of these drifting patterns than is generally assumed. It may even be suggested that the language used by the Aoidoi was not the common vernacular of the man in the street. In the ancient Greek language of Aoidoi, there is a considerable overlap between meaning and sound fields. The meaning or semantic structures of greek words are visible when we look at their root sound-relations. The related sound fields are:

1) gutturals: chi, gamma, xi, kappa, rho, aspirated 'h'
2) labials: pi, beta, phi, psi
3) dentals: tau, theta, delta, zeta, sigma

The phonetic formation patterns of greek root words can be roughly compared to the semitic formation pattern: a common root frame of consonants filled in with vowels. These vowels will combine in the most unusual combinations. For example, -io and -oi, -ea and -ae will be interchanged, and the flexion of verbs will display these surprising morphic patterns.

Historically, all modern European languages were structured with extensive loans from Latin and Greek. In these modern languages, there is very little concordance between sound and meaning. This is certainly due to the influence of the Alphabet, which broke and hid the original phonetic/semantic connections. Conjectures have been made that there was an original archaic indo-aryan language from which Greek, Awesta Persian and vedic Sanskrit derive. In this language, there would be an even better coupling of sound and semantics. Knowing the extension and drift factors of sound fields enables the researcher to find related words whose connections are obscured by alphabetically organized dictionaries. The following structure has been made through partially recovering those sound fields. Of course, listing them sequentially is not the best solution, but for the present form of linear text presentation, it must suffice, until we can get around actually constructing it in a suitable technical system. Alpha
The field of aio
Closely related to the root sound of aoidos is the verb aio . It has a very interesting saemeiphonic structure. It is built of vowels only. Since Greek did not have a notation for "u" , we have actually all the vowels wrapped up in one word. This is highly significant. The closest pan-indogermanic connection to this kind of sound structure is the Sanskrit mantra aoum .

The next interesting aspect of aio is its omnidimensional meaning: It simultaneously means: to hear, to perceive, to sense, to see, to understand, to know. Then it also has the meaning of the aspiration, the spirit. We will immediately see the connection to Aleph mentioned earlier. The significance of this field cannot be grasped with our common categories of knowing. The aoidos was the knower of a different kind of knowledge. This is the archaic knowledge, the living, breathing, aspirating pneuma of logos , of which Plato talks in Phaidros (276a) .
aer means air, wind, mist, fog.
aeros or eros has a connection here.
aiora aiera means suspension, hanging or floating freely in the air.
aion means eternity.

1.2.3. aidoia
aideomai schämen, scheuen
aidoi- / -os / a schamteile , schamglied (24) -> maedaea
aidae- / -s / -los privat, verborgen
aidnos unsichtbar

aithal- rauch (24)
aitho- feuer -> pyr
aithops glühend, funkelnd, flammend
The saemeiphonic Field of Aoidos
Let us picture the saemaiphonic field of the words connected with the aoidos. We noted that the Aoidos is not only a poet and a bard but also a seer and prophet. Hesiod uses the word in numerous locations in HESIOD 1978 . We can consider his work as a path leading us back into the aoide thought structure. Just by outlining the saemeiphonic connections contained in the word aoidos are we able to set a starting point for the uncovering of this archaic thought system. Since european thought has been shaped so intimately, using the words of the european mother language, greek will serve best to introduce us back into this territory that humanity has lost 2500 years ago.

aoidae is the hymn or poetry, the myth.
audae is the sound, the voice, the call, the message.
aeido , (17) aeisomai , asomai , means: to sing, call, shout, or making any sound when struck (like metal objects).
aoidos and eidos are sound-connected, leading into the field of idea.
alaetheia (43): Wahrheit, Wahrhaftigkeit,
alaethaes : wahrhaftig sein
amph- beidseitig

amphora -> pherei
ana- : darauf, daran, auf, hinauf, über, hin durch, entlang, währen (zeitlich), hindurch.
apo ...
apo : ab- weg- (nehmen)
apo-kalypto aufdecken, enthüllen, entblößen
-> kalyptron, kalyptras , Parmenides proim.

apo-kalypsis -> Enthüllung, Offenbarung

kalymma, kalypto
Bedeckung, decke hülle, verhüllung, fruchthülse, schale einer muschel oder schnecke
kalyx: blumenkelch
kalyptaer Hülle, Decke, Deckel Schachtel

aporos unwegsam, unpassierbar, schwierig, unmöglich, schlimm, heillos; Pers. hilflos, ratlos, unfähig, mittellos, arm

-> poros Durchgang, Überfahrt, Furt, Passage, Straße, Weg, Hilfsmittel, Einkünfte, Erwerbung

Zwang, Notwendigkeit, Naturgesetz, innerer Drang, Trieb, Bestimmung, Schicksal
Demonstration, Beweis, The Sem{e/aio}phonic circle of Chi-Gamma-Xi-Kappa-Rho-Chi
A short overlook of the Sem{e/aio}phonic gyros, or kyklos (both denoting the circle) of Chi-Gamma-Xi-Kappa-Rho is given in the following chapter . Its picture is given in ILL:G-1 . The center is formed by the aspirated "h" which has no own character in Greek, for which stands the semitic sign Aleph . This aspirated sound of Aleph has special significance in cabbalistic interpretations as it is the source and origin of everything else (SUARÈS 1976). The diagrams following ILL:G-2 show the architectonic extensions of this scheme, including the sound fields of beta, phi, psi, pi and delta, theta, tau, zeta, and sigma. These architectonics can be graphically displayed and navigated with the proper hypermedia tools.

The Chi Root - The Crossing
The Greek root sounds gamma , chi , kappa , xi , rho, are closely related which does not show in the dictionary because the word ordering sequence has spaced them far apart. All words containing these sounds will be candidates for inspection. At the time when Greeks learned writing, the letter chi was connected with crossings [232] . chiasmos and chiasma denote cross patterns as grammata, graphae, or glyphae , like cross-marks in clay or as wooden sticks laid cross-wise (like nordic rune s, German Buchstaben - Buch-stäbchen ). The cross-mark also denotes something recognized as false or suspicious.

It should therefore be noted with special attention that the characteristic symbols of our european culture are the cross and the christos (the anointed , the messias, the crucified ). We just have to exchange the sound patterns of christos with chiastos and are back at an original crossing obscured by the christian mythological overlay. The cross or chiasmos is the character or the sign of the chiastos, in its most technical sense.

Of course the important question to ask is: what has been crossed with what and why was this original crossing obscured? We may look for more material on this in the greek creation mythology of Hesiodos.

The Chi Extends in Semantic Space
chae is, if we allow us the freedom to interpret Hesiod, the first incarnation and the invisible, unconscious, and subsurface (or chthonic) name and aspect of the Mother Earth (gaia being her surface aspect, see the gamma entries). Persephone is the other name of this aspect. In the myth, she is the daughter of De meter , going to Hades (chades ) every winter and re-emerging every spring in the month of gamelion.

chthon is everything connected to chae. In Hesiod 's account of The Beginning, we can see the drift from chaos to chaea to ara-chae to chthon. (HESIOD 1978 ) This is mirrored by the meaning of cave , cavis , cueva , all descendants of the original root sound, also the female womb, hysteron -chysteron .

chiazo has a connotation in the musical realm, using an unusual (suspicious) sound or harmony pattern. Here we see the crossover or crossing of harmonies shine up as chi .

chilia denotes a thousand-fold, like a millennium or a thousand men. The chiliastai are the believers in the chiliasmos , the millennium-long reign of the christos /chiastos . We have a correspondance in the roman numeral X, the greek chi, which means not thousand but ten.

cheramos is a more specific word for caves, crevices, holes, hiding places.

cheir- means: hand. Its semantic field extends wide and far through ancient Greek thought.
Heidegger gives an extensive discussion of the Greek / German semantic rhizome connecting Hand and Hand-Werk: (WHD, 49-55).

Wir nannten das Denken das ausgezeichnete Handwerk.
Das Denken leitet und trägt jede Gebärde der Hand. Tragen heisst wörtlich: gebärden.
Heidegger (WHD, 53)

chrae- requiring, in need of, dt.: brauchen, is also connected to cheir, likewise: chra o, chraesthai, chraomai.
See Heidegger (WHD, 114-115, 118-119).

echein / schae- / chero- / chreo - / chres- / chresto- also belong to this semantic field.
The German words Handel, Händler, preserve the connection between cheir- and chres- .

chero has the meaning of robbed, deprived, widowed. Let us recall the more delicate parts of Hesiod 's account of The Beginning (HESIOD 1978 ) when chronos or kronos (the time god or Saturn ) privated or deprived the sky god ouranos of his private parts by means of a scythe or harpae (chero - charpae - sharp - scharf ) , thereby separating the chaea or gaia from her consort ouranos , and depriving her of her lover and making her a widow. (See also: DECHEND 1993 , p. 120-124.) The privated private parts of ouranos fell into the sea, the okeanos , there becoming transformed into froth, and in the course of events fathering the love goddess Aphrodite (aphros=froth) , born of the froth, rising from a sea shell or cheramis . We can assume a sound connection between chero and cheronos .

chloro- means everything green, i.e. the children of mother earth, the plants.

choanon is the hollow form into which molten metal is poured. The sound pattern is the reversal of chao - choa. See the connection to texis .

chnon or choinike is the wheel hub. We find this in Parmenides' text: (PARMENIDES69 , PARMENIDES74, B1, 6 ). The wheel hub is that which does not move while everything around it moves. This has found ample metaphorical use in the Tao Te King and Buddhist teaching about the wheel of rebirths . (See also: LAOTSE) . Further meanings are: axis , center of astronomical rotations , like the earth axis. (See also: DECHEND 1993 , p. 125-126.)

We would make the conjecture that the proimion (opening passage) of Parmenides' work which is framed by the words "hippois" at the beginning and "hippous" at the end has a special meaning. (PARMENIDES74 , B1, 1,21 ) Parmenides was not just trying to add some dramaturgic spice to his lecture about "to gar auto noein estin te kai einai" (to know is to be). The connection of whistling wheel hubs and red-hot axles may as well point into a cosmological dimension that we are no more aware of:

axin d'en chnoiesin hiei syringos auten aithomenos doiois gar epeigeto dinotoisin kyklois amphoterothen...

chro - has all the connotations of time . The god Chronos or Kronos reigns this semantic sub-field. A connection with gaia or chea is through the word ches or chizo which denotes everything belonging to the past. Appropriately, chrono - belongs to the present moment and extends into the future. chronologia is the connection of logos, i.e. measuring and time.

chry - is connected to gold, like gold the metal. Gold is the material preferably used by Hephaistos , the divine smith and craftsman (tekton). Gold is in all cultures invariably connected to the divine, the heavenly realm. We have a connection to the golden age of which the ancients spoke so often. We might call this age golden because it was under the reign of ouranos , before time had set in, i.e. before Kronos (the time god) had separated chaea and ouranos or heaven and earth. In that age, they were still united and heaven reigned on earth. The sound pattern switching from chry (gold) to chro (time, Kronos) should amply indicate a fundamental shift from the better to the words (actually we wanted to write worse, but as it came out, words fits equally well).

chre - is connected to the earthenly realm of money, commerce, the realm of the god Hermes (chermes ). In a further related meaning, we come to title, name, and character. chre- and chry- converge (or better: cross over) in the word christos .

chreo - is connected to lack of money, need, necessity.

chresme - chreste - is the semantic field of oracles. chresterion is the sacrificed animal (again a connection to christos where we have a sacrificed lamb ).

chrestes is a money-lender. Remark the opposition of chrestes vs. christos as recounted in the New Testament .

chresto - denotes the word field of everything useful, obiedient, honest, sincere, benign, compassionate, meek. For example as a good christian citizen.

chrima and chrisma means the semantic field of: 1) honorable: ointment, perfume, 2) practical: whitewashing, painting (as in house painting, not picture), and 3) demeaning: smear, grease, cheat. From this we fall into the word root of the Christian Religion :

christos the anointed, painted, greased, or cheated. Pick the meaning of your choice. There is a strange correspondence between the cherished Christian mythology and the impression we get from the sound field: Christianity always talked about and wished for the recurrence of the Golden Age of humanity, the aion chryseon, with the Christos the pantokrator , as the reigning god of the age. What we see actually happening though, is something falling a little short of this noble aim: Our age is the age of the chrestes : money reigns the world.

Onoma-Semaiophonic links in other languages:
english: grease
french: gras (-se)

Before It All Began: The Chaos
Not without good reason does Hesiod tell us that before The Beginning (the ar-chae ), there was something quite useless to try to even name. Therefore he called it the chaos, the unfathomable cave, the gaping, the yawning, the emptiness, the void, or in the words of Anaximandros: the apeiron . See also: Bolz (1992), Bolz (1994), Diels (1954), Hesiodos (1978), Sturm (1996, 452-521).

Our Brave New Age of Chaos:
Also with good reason, our present age is the age of re-emergence of the chaos , as is amply evidenced by the rise of Chaos Theory , and the general chaos pervading all the personal, political, ethical, and noetic domains of human life.

The sound pattern is: Chi , Alpha and Omega . This may lead us in a deep abyss indeed. Because chaos may not be a word defined by a meaning (which is nothing) but an anagram of the chiasmos or crossing of Alpha and Omega. And the word ar-chae can be parsed as the ara-chae, that is what follows the chae. ara means everything following in temporal or logical sequence [233] . The drift from chae to chao is described below. We can further list the words: chasko , chasmos , charybdis , charon , the ferry- (pherein-) boat man to hades or chades . We see the intense mythological connection with sound fields.

The meaning of "Alpha and Omega" is overlaid by christian interpretations but below these, more material is hidden. We can see the connection to the buddhist use of shunyata (Sturm 1996, 452-521). We may also be able to establish a connection to the symbolical machines mentioned above: We have here a word that is not arbitrarily connected to meaning, rather it is a kind of mental computer program to calculate and find meaning in.

Chi and the archaic Greek Thought Universe
In the root sound chiasmos of chi, gamma, xi, rho, and kappa we can find a rich semantic crossover. Following this line, we can unravel the connectivity of the Greek thought universe in a concise architectonic model. The works of the greek philosophers would make a different sense if a semantic connectivity system like this were used. This can be made commonly accessible with hypermedia structures. Philosophy would take an entirely different turn if tools like that were commonly available.

The Semantic Field of Gamma
The semantic field of gamma is reigned by the second incarnation of the Mother Earth goddess gaia , ge, or gea (or chaea in her subconscious chthonic or Persephone aspect). Gaia is also called Demeter for "de meter" or mater , mother , mère , Mutter as her name derivations are in the european languages.

ge-, geo- is everything connected to agriculture and land.

gala is the milk (the mother gives), also the galaxis or milky way. (See also: DECHEND 1993 )

gamos is the semantic field of marriage and sexual reproduction. Hieros gamos is the annual celebration of the celestial marriage of the mother goddess gaia with her seasonal consort.

gamelion was the greek month reserved for marriage, between january and february. This was in Greece the time of pre-spring, i.e. when Persephone, the chthonic aspect of gaia re-emerged to the surface.

gaster is everything connected to nutrition, digestion, like in gastronomy, that is the nutritive aspects of gaia.

gaulos is a vessel to contain the gala, the milk. Connected to storage and transportation of goods. In one special meaning a phoenician trade ship.

geito- means everything in the neighborhood.

gena- and gina- gono- is connected to family, descendance, birth, birthday, life-span, generation, genealogy, genitals, genetics. kine- and kinai- are the relations in the kappa field.

gyno- is everything connected to women.

gera- and gero- means everything connected to old age.

The ge-gantes or gigantes are the ab-orignal (ar-chaic) sons of mother earth ge or chea.

glypho- connects us to the semantic field of graphe and gramma. The process is always the same: inscribing or furrowing marks or patterns or forms or morphae into some mother substance or hyle or xyle or ghyle or adamah .

gloss- is everything connected to the tongue and the spoken word.

gnos- and gnom- are related to nous and noos, also to genos via genoma to gnoma, meaning sign, symbol, mark. To know.

The field of gnos-, gnosis is reigned by Sophia the mother goddes of knowing .

graphe or gramma derived from the process of inscribing or furrowing. Grammar, science, learning, documentation.

grammata are the written characters of the Alphabeta. See the correspondence with stoichea . Plato talks in Phaidros of the grammata as the shadow pictures of the living, animated logos.

griphe is a riddle, related to gryph- and kryph- (krypto).

gorgo is the horrible aspect of ge . In the hindu pantheon this is Kali . gorgyre is a subterranean prison.

goni- is everything connected to angles. The connection to gyne- will be visible to everyone who knows the old sumerian ideogram for woman. (Unfortunately not available as character under Windows.)

The gamma semantic field is completed, with gyros, the circle. We will see the connection of gyros and kyklos.

The Semantic Field of Xyle or Hyle
hyle (wood, building material, the famous term used by Aristoteles in his philosopical meaning) is sound-related to xyle, which also gives rise to a whole collection of words all dealing with wood and woodworking. From there we come to our word stylus.

The connection goes on: xiphi- and xiphe- denotes everything connected with steel as in sword, dagger, but also steel tools. xois is a wood carving knife. xyale also denotes a carving knife. Here is also the connection to the writing tool stylus.

The root xes- concerns words that deal with polishing, roughing, scratching, engraving, and all sorts of surface finishing. Here we come in close semantic proximity to the already known root of graphe- and gramma.

xoanon means a woodwork wood carving, also an idol.

xyro- is the root for everything connected with cutting hair. Interestingly enough, the well known expression of the sword suspended from a horse's hair finds its etymological roots here: "epi xyrou histatai akmes". " It all depends on one hair", " by hair's breadth". Everyone who already has experienced a close shave will find some meaning there.

The Semantic Field of Kappa
This semantic field of kappa is extremely varied and it is not really possible to adequately display the twisted webwork of its many intertwined semantic threads in any other than graphic display. There are many connections with the chi and gamma sound fields as is to be expected.

There is a whole field of roots that spell different but have similar meanings of hollowness, roundness, and emptiness. This gives a strong semantic connection to the chaos and chthon sound field. kaetos derives from chaetos-chthon and means a large monster in the sea, like Leviathan.

keno- keneon ( -> chnon, -> choanon), are roots connected with emptiness. kados, kaddichos (hollow measure), kaiadas (gaping hole in the earth).

kong{e/os} a hollowness and roundness, hollow shield, sea shell, like cheramis used for ladling water. Modern language derivations are conch and concha. koilos is likewise a hollowness, a cave, or a bay, likewise kotyle.

korone and koronis are connected to crown, ring, corona, German: Kranz.

kosmos means not only the cosmos, but also order, arrangement, decoration, embellishment, laud(atio).

The sound field of ky- contains a whole collection of relations. The reigning root might be kyklos, cycle or circle. It has many connotations, like wheel, cyclic movement, yearly seasons, the celestial vault or globe. kyllos is everything bent, round. kylindros is the cylinder. kyle is a cup, bowl, beaker. In German, there are the words Kuhle and Kelle bearing a sound relation.

kytos (<-> kotys), kyttaros, kyphella have a strong connection to keno, hollowness.

The root kym- is equally rich. Here we find many words related to waves. kymbaton is a wave, kymaino means making waves. kymbe, kymbalon is a cymbal, i.e. a (hollow) metal bowl that makes sound waves. kymbos is equally a hollowness or a bowl. Hollowness and roundness semantically connect the kyklos to the kymbo-, i.e. waveness.

kyo- means pregnant, mentioned in Hesiod's theogony (HESIOD 1978 ). Here we connect back to chaia and gaia. kytokia is birth.

koima means sleep, sleeping together, (in the Indian language: kama), karos (deep sleep, ~ of death) and koma (sleep of death).

koi- (switched io-sound from kyo) means everything connected to the nuptial bed. koitos is the root of koitus, not, as is falsely assumed, from the Latin co-ire.

kinai means lust, i.e. the agitated movements at the occasion of the koitos, which leads us into the next field of kine.

kine- is connected to everything moving. In Aristotelian and Scholastic philosophy, the kinesis is the distinction of life. In Timaios 52d to 53b, Plato talks about the kinetic device to mix and separate everything in the creation of the kosmos.

kinion is a spindle, leading to kloste (thread), klosma (web, thread), and finally klotho, the goddess of fate who spins the thread of fate.

kadmos is the sound connection to adam and kedem . Lambda
laethae -> thanatos -> lysis
lysimelaes gliederlösend (hesiod, 121), glied-erlösend My
mae : verneinend -> meontik
maedo- Beschluß, Ersinnen,
maedos Sorge, Klugheit, Verschlagenheit
männliche Geschlechtsteile -> maedea
maelon Apfel, Birne, Baumfrucht, Quitte
mealouchos / maelon echoo : Brusthalter
maelo- schafe... (82)
maen- / maeni- / -os : monat-
maenithmos : zorn, groll (maeni thymos ? ) (83)
maenis (homer) / maenit / maenio zorn, groll

meta / metr
meta zwischen, unter, mit, durch, vermittels
meta-noia (Matth. 4, 17) Zollitsch, Verhaltensbiologische Essays, p. 69, 70
meta-noeite:denkt um,
seine Meinung ändern, (spätere) Einsicht, Reue

nach massgabe , unter uebereinstimmung mit den gesetzen
der Zeit nach , hinterher
(II, 68)
metro (II, 78) messen, zaehlen, schaetzen, beurtailen -> timao

maetis , maetiaoo
maestor (II, 83) -> ratgeber
maetietaes -> maetiomai
maetis -> klugheit, einsicht, geschicklichkeit, rat, vorsicht, überlegung
maeryomai -> Wolle zupfen, auflockern, einweben
maetis: sinn
maetiaoo im Sinne haben, beratschlagen
maetiomai ersinnen erdenken, bewerkstelligen, anstiften
maetis Klugheit, Einsicht, Ratschlag, Vorsicht, Überlegung

maetaer (83) mutter
maeterios mütterlich
maetra (84) mutter, gebärmutter
maetr- ... maetro-

maechanaoo - künstlich, ersinnen bereiten, aussinnen, heimlich, tückisch (84)
maechanae Instrument, Maschine, Hilfsmittel, Mittel, Erfindung, Kunst, Kunstgriff, List, Kniff
maechan / -ikos / -oeis
maechos 85 Hilfsmittel (maechanae)
-> technae
mimnaeskoo / mnaesoo 87 erinnern mahnen gedenken, nicht vergessen
mis- hassend, gegen etw. sein

Melos: Melody, Song, Harmony, Member
{G}lied, Lied, Singweise, Melodie, Harmonie
melpo, melpomai / melpsomai, singen
melphd- melphdaema Gesang
maedaea: Geschlechts-Glied

mnaomai / mnoomai, mimneskomai: to remember, remind, reminiscence, sich erinnern, ge-denken
mnaema: Memorial, Ankenken, Denkmal Denkstein,
mnaemae: Memory, Remembrance, Gedächtnis, Erinnerung, Erwähnung
mnaemo- =
mnaemosynae: Mother of the Muses, die Gedächtnis (Heidegger, WHD)
monopol-: monopoly, alleinhandel 96
mousa: deity of song and music, Göttin des Gesangs, der Musik 99

endo- / eso- morphology and exomorphology O
olisbos: dildo
onoma- : name, denomination, appellation, designation,word, expression.

onta, einai - being things.
With the "to ti aen einai" the thingness of things starts to appear in Aristoteles. Plato uses this term sparingly (385b) and he does not seem to differentiate very Pi
Para-men-ithys (aka Parmenides) can be read as: "straight beyond the mind".

pragma - things done, business, negotiation.
This term is used by Kratylos. There is very slight variance to chraema, but it might be significant. The saemei-phonic field of pragma is a little more oriented towards process, dealings, and doings. The word

praxis belongs to this field.
Plato uses this term in the majority of places that are translated as "thing" .

Verschlagenheit -> Odysseus -> oudeis, poly-tropos
verschlagen werden apoplanastei
plangchthae od. 1,2

Peira bedeutet Versuch, gemachte Probe, Erfahrung (haben), aus Erfahrung wissen / belehrt sein.

peira, peirazo (Verführer), Zollitsch, Verhaltensbiologische Essays, p. 69, 70

peirasis: Versuchung
peirastaes: Versucher, Verführer -> erastaes: Liebhaber
peirastikos: zum Versuchen / Probieren gehörig. -> en-peiria / em-peiria
peirar / peiras: peiratos. Ende, Grenze , der höchste Grad, das Ziel, Vollendung
pera: Ort - darüber hinaus, Zeit: länger
pera: grenze
peran: jenseits
peras: das Ende, das äußerste, Vollendung, Vollbringung, Vollziehung
perasis: Durchgehen, Darübergehen, Übersetzen
peratos: jenseitig
perat osis : Begrenzung, Endigung
peri- : rings herum (Lieblingstitel bei Aristoteles)

poiae- and pathe-
The etymological connotations of the word information and its uses indicate the active-principle-centric thought system of western cultures. (As exemplified by the Genesis creation mythology [234] , as well as greek accounts: Plato, Timaios). These mythologies are always given from the vantage point of an active agent doing some kind of in-formation with some essentially passive matrix substance [235] . This cultural complex is common to all Christian, Judaic, and Islamic, as well as many other widespread thought systems, but it is not the only one possible. The polarization between active and passive principles is best exemplified by its greek roots [236] : poiae- and pathe-.

The rhizome poie- indicates anything relating to actively doing, creating, bringing forth , and extends into the latin rhizome pote- with all its european-language descendants: potestas, potency, potential, despotic etc., as well as the rhizome pater, father, Vater, patre, patria, papa , Pope, pitar (Sanskr.). Maturana makes direct use of this concept with his principle of autopoiaesis.

poiaesis: machen, hervorbringen, Erzeugen, Schaffen, Bilden, Bauen, Verfertigen (Handwerker, Künstler), Dichten, Dichtkunst, Poesie, Darstellung

poiaetaes: Verfertiger, Erfinder, Schöpfer, Gesetzgeber, Dichter, Schöpfer eines geistigen Werkes
The range and classes of the impressions and expressions of the human body
The poie- and pathe- polarity and complementarity has found a continuation in all major european languages through the latin roots of the Impression and Expression polarity. The range of impressions of the human being is roughly coincident with the senses, with some additional elements. The word im-pression is related to in-formation [237] . In semiotic terminology, for anything to be appreciated as a sign, it must be noticed, distinguished, experienced, and by any way enter into consciousness. In information technogy, this is called the input channel . Examples are: auditive, visual, kinesthetic and tactile, smell, taste.

Vice versa, matching the spectrum of impressions, are the expressions. If something is to serve as a cultural transmission instrument, a means of CMS, the human body must be able to produce it, and modulate it, consistently, repeatably, and the results must be consistent with the intentions. This will cover the range of expressions. In information technogy, this is called the output channel. Between the impressions and expressions is a complementary relationship, but it is entirely not symmetrical. To the contrary, its greatest cultural significance is its asymmetry.

porphyr- purpur

pous: Foot, Fuss, Anthropos, Oedipos (swollen Foot)

pragma: the deed, das Getane, die Tat, Unternehmung, Verhandlung, Unterhandlung, Geschäfte ph
phero / phora tragen forttragen, fortreißen
tragen, leiten, lenken, regieren
am-phora: amphi-phora, Gefäss mit zwei (beidseitigen: amphi-) Henkeln

pheromenos: eilends, rasch, botschaft überbringen

phren- Verstand, Geist, (Herz ?)

The saemeiphonic field of phos , phaos , photo- , phoos is reigned by phoibos the god of light: Apoll . photisma . phoibos: splendor, shining, sparkling, brilliant, luminous.
This field extends to everything seen, visualized, also luminance, and illumination:
phoibasma, phoibetes: prophet, oracle, mantics. phoinos : purple, phoenician, dark red (glowing).
A further connection exists to aithomenos.
phosphoros : luck, fortune, rescue.

phos and phone are strongly related. phone is connected to everything making sounds, the realm of voice, speaking, talking. We see the connection to logos .

phthongos klang

The next interesting observation is the polarity of Phaos and Chaos. This becomes relevant when we look at the song of the aoidos of chaea , the chaes-aoidos , or as he is better known: Hesiodos . Here we find the chaos or . As we will recall, it is an often used imagery of creation myths, also the one in the bible, to describe a transition of chaos to phaos . (Let there be light). This corresponds to the phonemic switch from guttural, deep down in the throat to labial, which is at the outer ends of the lips. This phonetic change could be quite significant.

Physis, or the Natura, the Birth Giving, the womb that gives birth to all existing things of nature, and this is called physis in Greek, from phyo, phyein , for begetting, procreating, creating, growing. Then there is the field of phytowhich covers everything relating to plants, then phyllo which covers all the green and growing, sap-containing leaves, and the grass. Because the universal matrix gives birth to all the existing things, we can call it the hypo-physis. She is the one that is preceding, and underlying the physis.

Let us no follow the word-sounds of the famous Aristotelian term of hyle (substance), which is originally wood, (and also a wide range of related terms: forest, trees, building material, matter). We could tentatively contrast the term hylae, the dead, dry wood, and the phylae, the green sprouting, sap-containing living plant, and perhaps gain some insight into the contrasting views of those approaches that treat the world as living being, and those which treat matter (mater) only as dead thing. The Semantic Field of Rho
This field is reigned by the third incarnation of chaia, gaia, and now rhea (HESIOD 1978 , 135). She is the mother of Zeus, the ruler of the fourth generation of gods. The drama of Ouranos and Kronos was repeated by Zeus (HESIOD, 453-507).

rho is also a guttural, albeit not usually recognized as such. Its character shows in the arabic and hebrew language where ch and chr are the same sound.

Here we find rhema , the river, the stream. rheo / rhoo- : everything in dissolution by flowing away and apart. panta rhei , as Heraklit said. rhoae , rhoos , rhytos is again everything flowing.

rhoth - is connected to the sound of moving water, waves, waterfalls etc. (Rauschen, Brausen) as opposed to rhythmos , this type of sound has an equal frequency distribution (fourier spectrum) of overtone-sounds. In technical terms, this is today called white noise.

rhaegm- breaking waves

rhema , rhaesis and rhaeto is everything connected to rhetorics .

rhaps- pertains to the rhymes and poems.

rhombos is connected to kymbo and kyklos, latin: rot-, the modern derivation rotation.

rhyax , rhyas is the upwelling and breaking forth of forceful currents and undercurrents.

rhythmos is again connected to rhombos, kymbo and kyklos. It is the rhythmic recurrence in all cyclical processes, also the (well-formed) proportion of Pythagoras fame, leading us into harmonia. Sigma
sapro / saeper faul (saepsis)
seautou / s'auton deiner selbst (408)
selas licht glanz

semn- / o / a / oma wuerde, verehrung
semnaion = geheiligter ort, tempel, tempel der Erinnyen
semno- göttern gleich, ehrwürdig

semelos = kochlias (II,410) -> (I,591) Schnecke mit gewundener schale / alles schneckenförmig gewundene / schraube / wendeltreppe
kochlos = auch musikinstrumente

saem- (411-412)
saema zeichen zeichen, merkmal, was sichtbar ist, schriftzeichen, malzeichen, anzeichen, vorzeichen, siegel, grenzzeichen meilenstein
= saemeion
saemaleos / saemansis / saema... / saemaia / saemasia
saemaino merklich machen, bezeichnen, ein signal geben, besiegeln, versiegeln
saemeioo / -ein / oo , zeichen geben
saemantaer zeichengeber, heerführer
saemeiootikos = zum bezeichnen, bemerken
-> saemeio-phonae A.G.
men -> mne

Semele, Graves 27,11 p. 110, Semele was the other name for Core, or Persephone, Isis
mother of Dionysios (Osiris) 134.4

sperma ... Same(n), seed, sperm

In most translations of Plato's works, stoicheia and grammata are treated as synonyms: meaning letters of the alphabet. But for Plato, there is a quite marked distinction: when he talks about stoichea, he talks about spoken sounds, or phonemes , and when he says grammata, he means the writtenletter. The translation of Kratylos has to be treated with special care to yield any useful information of what Plato was talking about. The saemei-phonic field of stoichea is:

stichao reih und glied
stichinos / sticho verse (441)
stoiche (442)
stoicheoma: element, fundamental building block, first principle
stoicheoo: to teach the basics
stoicheomata: the 12 signs of the zodiac
stoicheon: letter of the alphabet
stoichos: the rod or stylus of a sundial that casts the shadow by which the time is
indicated on the dial
stoicheo: in Reihe stehen

It is easy to see that the term is heavy with connotations from ancient cosmology. This subject has been treated in another of Plato's dialogues: Timaios . The first meaning of stoicheoma denotes the idea of a first principle of the cosmos . The zodiacal signs can be clarified in connection with the sundial . The sundial was introduced in Greece by Anaximandros .

Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek
stoicheion, to:

I. in a form of sun-dial, the shadow of the gnomon, the length of which in feet indicated the time of day, hotan êi dekapoun to s. when the shadow is ten feet long...

II. element,
1. a simple sound of speech, as the first component of the syllable, Plat. Crat. 424d; to rhô to s. IBID=au=Plat. Crat. 426d; grammatôn s. kai sullabas IDEM=Plat. Theaet. 202e; s. esti phônê adiairetos Aristot. Poet. 1456b22; phônês s. kai archai dokousin einai taut' ex hôn sunkeintai hai phônai prôtôn IDEM=Aristot. Met. 998a23, cf.Gal.15.6:--stoicheia therefore, strictly, were different from letters (grammata), ... s. letters which are pronounced, A.D.Adv.165.17; grammata and s. are expressly identified by D.T.630.32; the s. and its name are confused by A.D. Synt.29.1, but distd. by Theod.1.340, Sch.D.T. l.c.:--kata stoicheion in the order of the letters, alphabetically, AP11.15 (Ammian.); Plu.2.422e.

2. in Physics, stoicheia were the components into which matter is ultimately divisible, elements, reduced to four by Empedocles, who called them rhizômata, the word stoicheia being first used (acc. to Ph.7.13) by Pl...

3. the elements of proof, e.g. in general reasoning the prôtoi sullogismoi, Aristot. Met. 1014b1; in Geometry, the propositions whose proof is involved in the proof of other propositions, IBID=au=Aristot. Met. 998a26, au=Aristot. Met. 1014a36; title of geometrical works by Hippocrates of Chios, Leon, Theudios, and Euclid, Procl. in Euc.pp.66,67,68F.: hence applied to whatever is one, small, and capable of many uses, Aristot. Met. 1014b3; to whatever is most universal, e.g. the unit and the point, IBID=au=Aristot. Met. 1014b6=lr; the line and the circle...

4. generally, elementary or fundamental principle, arxamenoi apo tôn s. Xen. Mem. 2.1.1; s. chrêstês politeias Isoc. 2.16; to pollakis eirêmenon megiston s. Aristot. Pol. 1309b16; s. tês holês technês Nicol.Com.1.30, cf. Epicur. Ep.1p.10U., Ep.3p.59U., Phld.Rh.1.127S., Gal.6.306.

5. astrôn stoicheia the stars, Man.4.624; s. kausoumena luthêsetai 2 Ep.Pet.3.10, cf. au=2 Ep.Pet. 3.12=lr; esp. planets, stoicheiôi Dios PLond.1.130.60 (i/ii A.D.)

6. s. = arithmos, as etym. of Stoichadeus, p.192 H.

Related words [238] are:

stichao: rank and file
stichinos / sticho: verse
stoicheoma: element, fundamental building block, first principle
stoicheoo: to teach the basics
stoicheomata: the 12 signs of the zodiac
stoichos: the rod or stylus of a sundial that casts the shadow by which the time is indicated on the dial
stoicheo: to stand in rank and file
Plato and the stoicheia
In most translations of Plato's works, stoicheia and grammata are treated as synonyms: meaning letters of the alphabet. But for Plato, there is a quite marked distinction: when he talks about stoichea, he talks about spoken sounds , and when he says grammata, he means the written letter.

In Timaios , more meanings are given: The first meaning of stoicheoma denotes the idea of a first principle of the cosmos . The zodiacal signs can be clarified in connection with the sundial . The sundial was introduced in Greece by Anaximander . (Gadamer)

Plato talks in Phaidros (276a) of the grammata as the shadow pictures of the living, animated logos . He uses a very subtle word-play here, the opposition of eidotos (true knowledge) and eidolon (shadow image):

Ton tou eidotos logon legeis, zonta kai enpsychon, ou ho gegrammenos eidolon an ti legoito dikaios
'You mean the living, ensouled speech, the logos, of the truly knowledgeable, of which the written version can only be looked at as shadow image?'

stom- / stro- / sym-
Canonical: {/s}{/t/tr}{e/o}{m/n/ph}

stom / a ... mund, maul, schlund

streph o... drehen, winden (445) -> trepho / tropae
-> strophae, Drehen, Wenden, Kreisen
kata-strophae Um- und Rückkehr , Wendepunkt im Drama, Polyb. Luc. (Rost 535)
kata-streph o umkehren umdrehen, umwenden
strobe- im Kreis drehen
strong ... Rundung
strophalinx wirbel, krümmung (447)
strophinx, zapfen, türangel, -> gomphois

symballo (457 - 458)
s.chaema haltung gestalt form figur (496)
s oma Leib, Körper (498)

sya- sye-
wilde schweine, lat: sus
sybotes schweinehirt
sybaris: schwelgen

mit samt, nebst, auf jemandes Seite, Kameraden, Anhänger
mit, nach, gemäß
Verbindung, Gemeinschaft, Teilnahme
zusammen Thaeta
th ist häufig wie s gebraucht (432)
thaema . . theama theaeme
thaeaeto anschauen, staunen (445)

thao säugen, melken
theaomai anschauen, sehen, wahrnehmen
thaumazo bewundern

thanatos tod
a-thanatos unsterblich Tau
When we look at the saemei-phonic field of techne, we find many similar-sounding words that bear some connection of meaning, but are spelled slightly differently.
1 kunst, gewerbe, handwerk wissenschaft
2 kunstfertigkeit, geschick
3 Kunstgriff, list betrug
4 sitte, art, mittel etwas zu erreichen
5 kunstwerk

-> maechanae

teucho, teuxo ,
tetykein: to create, form, manufacture, smithing, carpentering: to create, form, manufacture, smithing, carpentering
the root verb form of the field

techne: art, craft, skill, trick, fraud
tekton: carpenter, constructor, smith, creator, procreator->tekno
tektaino: woodworking, carpentering, metal working-> texis
tektonike: the art of woodworking (giving the hyle a morphe)
teuchos: tool, gear, ship gear, vessel, armor, weapon
tykos: stone hammer -> tykisma -> typis -> teich
tykisma: stone building, stone wall
teich-: everything pertaining to fortification walls
tekmar: to set a goal, to judge from signs, conclude, to reckon, : to set a goal, to judge from signs, conclude, to reckon,
to calculate
tekno: to procreate children
tokos teke tekno -> gebären / zeugen, -> tiktein
texis: melting, dissolve-> etaxen, ->taxis
etaxen, etakaen :
to change appearance through dissolution
takeros: molten
taxis: order, battle order
tagma: the thing ordered, positioned
taktikos: pertaining to the battle order, tactical
typis: hammer
typo-: everything created through impression, embossing, printing, engraving

tiktein: zeugen -> gennan

chaes - aoid aio: chaes-{aoidos/odos} -> Hesiodos

ara: ch - ae : ch-aos ch - aea -> nyktos -> gaea
ouranos rhea

Das griechische Rhizom geno- gono- gyno- hat mit Winkeln (Schamdreieck), und allem weiblichen zu tun. Trigonometrie heißt also ursprünglich: Die Urmutter (meter) mit dem Schamdreieck (gono). Also eine ursprüngliche matriarchale Dreifaltigkeit. Euklid würde sich im Grabe umdrehen! Ob sich eine Verbindung von (geno- gono- gyno-) zu genius ziehen läßt, weiß ich nicht, ich müßte mal wieder im indogermanischen Wörterbuch nachblättern, dazu komme ich aber nur in München am Institut für Indogermanistik.

Tropae (trepo): das Umwenden, das Umkehren, Schlagen, Forttreiben der Feinde
Umkehr, Rückkehr, Wendung, Veränderung
haeliou tropai: Die Sonnenwende(n), cheimerinai: Winter/Sommersonnenwende
tropikos: der Sonnenwende zugehörig
tropologeo: tropisch, figürlich sprechen
tropos: Wendung, Richtung,
Art & Weise, Einrichtung, Verfassung, Manier, Sitte, Gebrauch, Mode, Charakter, Wesen
-> en-tropae: (en-tropomai) das in sich gehen, Scham, Achtung, Rücksicht (328)
-> en-tropia: Windungen oder Ränke
-> strophae W
weben, webstuhl -> Ill 1,31 epoichomenae den Webstuhl umgehend / auch Gebärstuhl (Rost 375)
histourgia (Weberei, textus), hyphainein

3.7.2. An example of epic imagery: The Proimion of Parmenides
The work of Parmenides stands at a cultural cross-roads, or cultural switch which the greek self-reflexion aka history of philosophy (Denken über das Denken , Heidegger WHD: das légein des lógos) made around -600 to -500. Formerly, this reflexion style was clothed in the epic poetry of Homer and Hesiodos (glossary: Epos), and after Parmenides, the influence of the newly invented technology (around -600) of the written text (textus, histourgon) made itself felt, and philosophy became based on the prosa style used by the later philosophers. Heidegger devotes his work WHD mainly to this important philosophical-historical junction. His main focus is a crucial passage in the main text:

chrae to légein te noein t' eon emmenai
Nötig ist zu sagen und zu denken, dass das Seiende ist.
Parmenides, Frag. VI / Heidegger: WHD, 105

The work of Parmenides is still composed in Hexameter but its content is already philosophical, not mythical any more. Conceptually, this work is a very significant step in the development that led to Plato, and Plato derives many of his key ideas from Parmenides. But Platon sharply polemized against the epic style and ductus of the aoidoi-poets. It has been asked why Parmenides resorted to a style of writing that was already antiquated at his time and would under philosophical views not be considered fitting to the subject matter. Parmenides can be considered as one who still had access to the old traditional art of the aoide, and knew how to apply it.

The present work seeks to continue the exploration of semantic rhizomes as Heidegger has pioneered in WHD. We will choose his work as point of departure, and focus on the most enigmatic part of the work: the proimion (introductory passage). Here it can be experienced to the full where Parmenides uses the formal methods and the mental imagery of the older epic tradition to full effect. It has been noted that the proimion poses a strong contrast in style to the main text: Whereas the main text deals with the immutable eternal realm of truth, the proimion recounts a breathless race Pleger (1991 , p. 102).

The following is the first part of the proimion. In the original, it continues to verse 32. We will only consider the part framed by hippoi ... hippous. The Text
Quoted from Parmenides (1974), engl. transl. A.G.

hippoi tai me pherousin, hodon t' epi thymos hikanoi, (1)
pempon, epei m' es hodon beaesan polyphemon agousai
daimonos, hae kata pant' astae pherei eidota phota.
tae pheromaen. tae gar me polyphrastoi pheron hippoi
harma titainousai, kourai d' hodon haegemoneuon. (5)
axin d' en chnoiaesin hiei syringos autaen
aithomenos. doiois gar epeigeto dinotoisin
kyklois amphoterothen, hote sperchoiato pempein
Heliades kourai, prolipusai domata nyktos
eis phaos, osamenai kraton apo chersi kalyptras. (10)

entha pylai nyktos te kai haematos eisi keleuthon,
kai sphas hyperthyron amphis echei kai lainos oudos.
autai d' aitheriai plaentai megaloisi thyretois.
ton de Dikae polypoinos echei klaeidas amoibous.
taen dae parphamenai kourai malakoisi logoisin (15)
peisan epighradeos, hos sphin balanoton ochaea
aptereos oseie pyleon apo. tai de thyretron
chasm' achanes poiaesan anaptamenai polychalkous
axonas en syrinxin amoibadon eilixasai
gomphois kai peronaeisin araerote. taei rha di auteon
ithys echon kourai kat' amaxiton harma kai hippous. (21) The Sem{e/aio}phonic Field
hippoi tai me pherousin
the horses that carry me hurriedly

The Sem{e/aio}phonic field of phora , phero contains the meanings of carry, fly, pull away. The english words ferry, far, furthering, forth have a connection here. In German, there are distantly connecting words: Fahren, Fahrt (in einem Pferde-Wagen), Fähre, Furt. Via Ferd, the word Pferd itself equally continues this line. pheromenos means hurriedly, fast, quick. This leads over to the field of messages and messengers. The connotations of "carry" carry over into the semantic field of bearing (fruit), fertility. In modern medical science, there appears a wonderful "magic" word: pheromone, which was intended to mean something like "(some kind of) hormone, transferred by aerial passage". pheromones are said to work directly on the limbic system, bypassing the higher cognitive centers of the pre-frontal brain.

as far as

t' epi thymos hikanoi
the will will carry

thymos means not only will but also soul, feeling, heart, courage, boldness.

pulled me forth,

epei m' es hodon (path) baesan polyphemon (renowned ) agousai (lead) daimonos (goddess)
having led me onto the renowned path of the goddess

agousai / agós: leader, ag o: to lead, to drive, to bring, to rule, order, ag on : fight, exertion arab.: jihad / jehad

hodos : the way, the path. directly connected by the sound is the word hosos : as far, as much, as long (on the way).

polyphemon also means: where many voices are heard. We can relate phaeme to lat. fama, and fame. A further relation is with phone . See below, the connection to phos.

daimonos means god, goddess, divine being, and the (super-) human souls of the golden age (see above: chrys - chros - and the accompanying Sem{e/aio}phonic field). daemon : knowing, sage. daemosyne is experience, knowledge, wisdom, sagesse. Here we have the connection to the lost wisdom of the golden age.

hae kata pant' astae pherei eidota phota
which leads the well educated man through all places.
(This translation may lead us into strange places indeed.)

hae kata (downwards) pant' (all, the All) astae (educated) pherei (carry) eidota (image, idea) phota (illuminated)

We first notice that we have a full succession of words for "leading" (to somewhere specific) from the wealth of archaic greek sound imagery: pherousin.. hoson... hikanoi... pempon... hodon... agousai... pherei. The last word gives us the lead where we are being led to: into the reigning concept of the proimion: The Light - Phos. We know the word pharos for lighthouse, "the light that leads the way". pherei - pharos - phos. This is implied here.

asteios : urbane, well educated.

We are probably not mislead too far off the right path when we assume that the eidota phota bears a special meaning here, as the illuminated and illuminating images that we are being led to by the daimonos or the spirits of the archaic age of aoidoi. The field of eidos
eidos idon : to see, to appear, to know, to understand, to recognize, eidol - is everything connected to images and idols. We can draw a direct connection from eidos to aoidos.

idea and idaee leads us into the platonic philosophy of idea or essence of the phenomena. This is the essence of Parmenides' work: the eternal, unchanging being that can be grasped and understood only with the nous or spirit-understanding. The field of phos/phaos
The Sem{e/aio}phonic field of phos , photo- , phoos and phaos is reigned by phoibos the god of light: Apoll . This field extends to everything seen, visualized, also luminance, and illumination: photisma . phoibos: splendor, shining, sparkling, brilliant, luminous. phoibasma, phoibetes: prophet, oracle, mantics. phoinos : purple, phoenician, dark red (glowing). phosphoros : luck, fortune, rescue.

phos and phone are strongly related. phone is connected to everything making sounds, the realm of voice, speaking, talking. We see the connection to logos .

The next interesting observation is the polarity of Phaos and Chaos. This becomes relevant when we look at the song of the aoidos of chaea , the chaes-aoidos , or as he is better known: Hesiodos . Here we find the chaos or . As we will recall, it is an often used imagery of creation myths, also the one in the bible, to describe a transition of chaos to phaos. (Let there be light). This corresponds to the phonemic switch from guttural, deep down in the throat to labial, which is at the outer ends of the lips. This phonetic change could be quite significant.

tae pheromaen.
thus I was carried forth

tae gar me polyphrastoi (knowledgeable) pheron (carried me) hippoi (horses)
to where the knowledgeable horses carried me

We may assume that there is a subtle Sem{e/aio}phonic connection between phero, phora, and phrasto- via the metaphor of message mentioned above. polyphrasto- derives from phraenae, and can be translated as having wit or as being sagacious. The subtle connection to the word carry can be constructed when we carry over meandings from one context into another (different or higher order). In Philology, we speak of trans-lation (Über-setzung -> Fähre). In Philosophy, we find a similar field in Hermeneutics and Interpretation. In Psychology, this is called transference or Übertragung. Otherwise it is also known as inter-ligence.
As a side note: from this passage derives the old military adage for the soldiers that they should abstain from thinking and leave this to the horses, who have larger heads than they (A.D.)

harma (chariot) titainousai (tearingly pull forth),
they tearingly pulled forth the chariot

titaino - connects us to the archaic word of titanic energies. The meaning is connected to an ultimately extended or intended bow. The mental imagery gives us the figure of a titan who is stretched bent between heaven and earth. We have a titanic effort descripted here, all forces are bent under the will-power to the point of breaking. We are being told and being led into the deeper and deeper reaches of the archaic mind, the titanic mind, of the first generation of creation that Hesiod tells us about.

harma is the two-wheeled chariot of homer ic adventure origin. We will get some interesting details on it in a moment. For classical Greek thought, the harma is the "Leitmotif" or lead symbol of the archaic mental frame. We recall Phaeton , because this is the point where he lost control over his horses and careened straight into his desaster with the sun chariot. We are on the safe side, because we have expert guidance without which we would have no chance.

Further meanings of the root harm - are: put together, join together, couple, sleep together, unite, harmony, harmonikos. In the indian Sanskrit we find the Yoga or jugum im Latin, both meanding yoke. The yoke is the device by which two oxen are chained together, to draw a pullock (pull-oxen). The technological advantage of the harma -warriors of the bronze age (of Homeric fame), was that their war chariots were drawn by speedy horses, while their hopeless adversaries had only heavily armored oxen carts, which the speedy harma -warriors outran in a series of bronze-age Blitzkriege, by which the ancient aristocratic order of harma -warriors was established all across the Eurasian continent. See Spengler's masterful analysis of that once Geheimwaffe of the ancient warrior mythology. One very Geheimwaffe aspect of the technological art of harma -war is that the yoke which is useful for the oxen, will choke the horses. Something more fitting for then had to be found (an old meaning of fitting, fitness is: to equip with suitable weaponry . again we find our old friend the horse: equip means: quippous, hippous)

kourai d' hodon (the way) haegemoneuon (guided).
Sun-daughters guided the way

Here we have the connection to the sun god(ess). Actually, it is explicitly given later on, in (9), where we get the word Heliades . This is Women's Work.

axin (wheel hubs) d' en chnoiaesin hiei syringos (reed whistle) autaen aithomenos (red hot).
the axle in the wheel hubs screetched the shrill sound of a reed whistle, red hot was it.

aithos or aitops is the field of fire, burning, heat, glowing red with heat, also the red hot iron.

We are lead back deep into the semantic rhizome of phos and phonae , giving us the connection of the light and the sound, the phoinos , which means purple red. We also get a cosm{ological/gonic} connection by the sound field of chnon , axon , pramantha or prometheus , the fire drill, leading us into the deepest abysses (chasms, maelstroem) of archaic cosmology.
Dechend / Santillana (1993)

In syringos and the connection of aithomenos ... aisomenos ... aidomenos , the double meaning of aio as hearing and wind-sound reappears, only immensely magnified to the limits of endurance. The sound fields of audae and asomai appear.

(7,2-8,1) doiois gar epeigeto dinotoisin kyklois amphoterothen,
because it was driven by two whirling wheels on both sides

we may recall the other meanings of kyklos in the cosmic realm, meaning eternal recurrences and stellar revolutions.

(8,2-9,1) hote sperchoiato pempein Heliades kourai,
as with even more hurry the heliadic daughters led the way

We get the feeling of continuously rising tension. This is very serious business, fraught with danger, and we must not slow down, because something (the night) will catch up with us when we do, engorging and engulfing us mercilessly, throwing us back into the abyss. This is the next best visual imagery coming as close as is possible to some very phantastic scenes out of the Star Wars Mythology where the rocket ships of the federation make it barely through a closing stellar passage.

(9,1-10,1) prolipusai domata nyktos eis phaos,
leaving behind us the house of night, toward the light.

Now we have almost made it. We have escaped the precession of the equinoxes and are now beyond the time barrier . We have entered the realm of the eternal . (Interpretation according to: DECHEND 1993 ).

(10,2) osamenai kraton apo chersi kalyptras.
forcibly removing the veil from the head.

osamenai has the root sound of ousia , the essence of Aristoteles . We are connected back to eidota , the images of the eternal being. The veil is removed, now we can see clearly, truly, and really. The eternal vision is cleared for us. It takes some more effort to remove this last veil. ous- is the root word for a handle, the handle by which we can hold things in reality.

(11) entha pylai nyktos te kai haematos eisi keleuthon,
here is the gate of the ways of the night (nyktos ) and the day (haematos ).

keleuthos is again another word for the way, the path, the voyage. The next connection to a known sound field we have is kyllos , leading us to kyklos . There are straight and directed (ithys ) paths and voyages and there are cyclical paths. This gate signifies their parting, the cosmic cross-roads. Keleutheia is a name for Pallas Athene .

There is one more station to pass, but it is not an obstacle to us, just another sign that we have made it. This is the gate separating the Ways. It is the gate of the passage of time, of endless ever-recurring kyklois of day and night.

kai sphas hyperthyron amphis echei kai lainos oudos.
and a gate lintel and a stone step surround it.

We find in the word hyper-thyron the root of the german Türe Tor , and the english door . lainos means made from stone. echo - means: hold, hold fast, give a hold.

autai d' aitheriai plaentai megaloisi thyretois.
The gate itself, shining with etheric light, is filled with huge swinging doors

ton de Dikae polypoinos echei klaeidas amoibous.
for which Dike the all-sentencing (punishing) polypoinos holds the keys to entry and exit.

This will lead us straight to Anaximandros and the apeiron . There the Dike is not a mythological goddess but the impersonal cosmic law of all things arising and decaying.

taen dae parphamenai kourai malakoisi logoisin
peisan epiphradeos,
To her spake the Sun-daughters with gentle words and persuaded her

hos sphin balanoton ochaea aptereos oseie pyleon apo.
to pull back the bolted bar from the door

tai de thyretron chasm' achanes poiaesan anaptamenai
and it opened wide, like a yawning, gaping abyss, the gorge of the doors

This leads us straight to Hesiod 's account of The Beginning. chasm and achanes is the imagery of the chaos . Depicted is the gate of the apeiron which is the gate of chaos. We are now lead through the maelstrom, called Amlodhi's (Hamlet's) mill (Dechend 1993 ). The theme is the same as above. We are leaving the realm of temporal existence, proceeding into the eternal realm. We may call to memory our contemporary physical cosmological imagery of black holes , the maelstrom of gravity that exactly parallels this archaic tale.

polychalkous axonas en syrinxin amoibadon eilixasai
gomphois kai peronaeisin araerote.
turning the polychalkous brazen / bronze (aere perennis) axes (pylons) with nails and rivets in their hinges

taei rha di auteon ithys echon
kourai kat' amaxiton harma kai hippous.
right through there, in the straight way, the Sun-daughters guided the chariot and the horses.

ithys , itharos is everything connected to straight(forward), also clear, pure. idea is not far away from this idea. ithyphallos is the erected phallos.

amaxa- , amaxi- , is everything belonging to the chariot and the cart. Also the stellar signs of the big and little dipper (great and small vessel, mahayana and hinayana ).

Now we have left the kykloid ways of temporal existence and have returned to the straight path of Eternal Truth. This brazen door made of aere perennius had slammed shut 2500 years ago, and no one had entered here afterwards. Plato only had a dim recollection of what had occurred here. He did not have the key any more. For him, this was already dark, obscure mythology, as it was for all the countless generations of philosophers after him. Deeper meanings of Greek names
After this tour de force which will surely earn us a heavy beating by linguists, philologists, and philosophers alike, we might be really brazen and get tempted to ask a really idiot question (See: ->:IDIOT-QUESTION ). What if there was more to the name Parmenides than just an arbitrary name (onoma homoion to pragmati)? We know from the amerind people how they chose names to reflect an essential character trait of the bearer (Chief Sitting Bull). What if we were to parse the word Parmenides and come to something like: para-men-ithys (straight beyond the mind). We can then graduate to Hesiodos, and analyse that as chaes-aoidos , the aoidos of chaos-chea-gea-gaia-rhea, which is exactly what describes the essence of his work (->:SEM{E/AIO}PHON-NET ). Then we might advance to Anaximandros, and get something like: Anax-andros, or Ana-Axin-Andros. Timaios has some connection to the greek word timao, or to weigh, to deliberate. Then we might try Prometheus, whose brother interestingly was called Epimetheus (the before-thinker, and the after-thinker). Santillana and v.Dechend note that there is a connection to the vedic root term Pramantha, or fire drill (DECHEND 1993 ). And last, but not least, we get the toughest job of them all: Homer. He was the first and foremost aoide as we have already mentioned. See ->:AOIDE . That again is connected to aio. Let us now make a quick detour to a different corner of the world and take up the thread that we connected to the word aoum. We now get this little onoma-Sem{e/aio}phonic kyklos:

aoide - aio - aoum - soma - haoma - homeros - aoide The Omnipresence of embedded Ontologies
The forces that shaped modern european languages are to be found 2500 years ago in the development of greek language. The semiotic decisions and developments made between the time of Heraklit and Anaximander about -600 and the time of the Alexandrinian library became the foundation of the whole of western thought structure. They filtered directly into Roman Imperial Latin, the language of Cicero and Horaz, and from there into Church Latin, the Scholastic Age, and from there, with incorporation of the wisdom of the Byzantine Empire in european Renaissance thought and finally the thought systems of modernity: Bacon, Galileo, Copernicus, Newton, Descartes, Leibniz and Kant. The apparent diversity of european languages makes us forget that the underlying world models, their built-in ontologies, are extremely uniform. Because it is so all-pervasive, it is extremely difficult to separate out the determinants of this world-system. Kant's Critique was only the last of a long series of efforts to sort them out in a set of universal categories and arrive at a base that is not determined by the indo-european graeko-roman thought structure. Seven Seals
... On Multi-Level Codings and Experimental Linguistics

We might conclude this tour through The Aoide Sem{e/aio}phonic Universe with showing some vistas that up to now had to remain beyond current scientific validation because of lack of proper instruments. Perhaps by using new fuzzy phonetics logic and statistical based tools can we gain an approach that is above mere speculation. This is the field of Multi-Level Codings. It was said of the old scriptures that they were guarded by seven seals, only to be fully understood by the initiates. Although we have learned to decipher many of the old texts, and we are able to read a sense in them, the question is: While we have a meaning, do we have the message? This question must remain so far outside the realm of scientific investigation until the Symbolator is actually constructed. Only then can we interrelate all the available data of the old scriptures and epic tradition in one coherent data model. As coding theory tells us, any feature of an epos might serve as information carrier. Thus, we don't only have the conventional meaning of the words, but also their arrangement, the subtle variations of rhythm, of melody, and many more factors. When we can take all these factors into account, we can start at a work that could be called Experimental Linguistics, because now, it would be possible to construct and validate a great number of variations of codification.

This work has a long tradition, of course. In "Hamlet's Mill" Giorgio Santillana and Hertha von Dechend propose a codification of astronomical knowledge in the old mythology (Dechend 1993). A similar case is advanced in "The Myth of Invariance" by Ernest McClain (McClain 1978). Finally, we could mention the cabalistic tradition, as exemplified by Carlo Suarez (Suares 1976). Perhaps we can then uncover something in the great Vedic Tradition that has been hidden during thousands of years, carefully guarded in hundreds of generations of oral transmission by the Brahmin culture, and immensely valuable for the future of humanity on this planet.

3.7.3. Plato, Kratylos: Onoma homoion to pragmati
In Kratylos, Plato talks about the relation betweeen the sounds of words and namings, and their meaning. He opposes two views:

1) The names of things and people are products of social convention only. Prodikos (384b) and Protagoras are (386a) the proponents of this view. The famous statement of Protagoras is cited:
panton (all) chraematon (things-of-daily-use ) metron(measure) einai (is) anthropon (the-human).
'The human is the measure of all things.'

2) The view of Kratylos is summed up in (Kratylos 434a):
to onoma homoion to pragmati
the name similar the thing-being-dealt-with
'The name is similar to the thing'.

Plato's treatment of the subject is peculiar. As in most of his dialogues, he lets Sokrates do most of the talking, but he professes to be ignorant about the subject (Cusanus: idiota de mente). And those who are knowledgeable, are not present (Prodikos and Protagoras), or are given no opportunity to talk. Kratylos appears only in the last quarter of the text, starting at 428d to 440. He has hardly the opportunity to say two coherent sentences about his view on the matter when he finally gets the word. Therefore, the Kratylos dialogue has even been interpreted as a semiotic joke that Plato made to befuddle his students in the academy and us across the millennia. Or it can be assumed that Plato didn't have the right conceptual tools to make a semiotic analysis. This seems to be a modern interpretation which is also proposed by Eco (1994: 25). There are two questions remaining: First: Plato is known to be one of the most outstanding geniuses of mankind, but humor was not one of his strong points. Second: Why did he go through such an effort to make it known to posterity, that he didn't know very much to say about the matter? If we assume that Plato saw enough relevance in the subject to write about it, then there are again two possibilities: 1) He knew more about it than he wanted to write, keeping the unwritten teachings hovering in the background. 2) He was guessing himself, but wanted to preserve something that even he, one of the most knowledgeable men of his time, had only a dim recollection of, so that it became not totally lost to posterity.

Now what shall be proposed here, is not an answer to the question, if there ever is an answer at all, for in its profundity, this is the question of the ideal universal language (Eco 1994: 25). Instead, a way of continuing the socratic method of asking questions shall be proposed. We are ignorant, but we have a docta ignorantia (Cusanus) to apply. In order to ask better questions, we need a different conceptual infrastructure. We need to apply different research methods that have come to our reach only just now with the availability of very powerful computer based (fuzzy linguistics, bayesian logic) linguistic tools. In order to enlarge on the arguments presented here the computing machinery would have to be available in the first place. The Kratylos hypothesis and the autopoiesis of language
In 434a, the view of Kratylos is even extended to include not only the words but also the letters of which the words consist:
(Oukoun eiper estai to onoma homoion to pragmati,)
anankaion pephykenai ta stoicheia homoia tois pragmasin
necessity in-natural-manner the {sounds / the letters} similar to the things
'then by necessity must the sounds (the letters) be similar to the things also'.

In full: "If now the name is similar to the thing, then by natural necessity must the {sounds / letters} be similar to the things also". Let us call this statement the Kratylos hypothesis . This statement of Plato contradicts the "signe arbitraire" principle of current linguistic consensus as it was coined by Saussure. The observation of Wilhelm v. Humboldt makes a similar statement: "In reality is a statement not constructed of the words that it consists of, but to the contrary, the words arise from the totality of the statement."
Humboldt, (1963, Ges. Werke, VII, 17, p. 72.)
(LOC_DVD) The terms used by Plato
The translation of classical greek texts usually causes no problems when one needs to find equivalents for words of common culture use like: house, ship, knife, loom, horse, sheep, river, tree, mountain , etc., because they denote easily identifiable tangible, physical objects that are common in western, indo-european cultures. Philosophical texts present more of a problem for translation because of the extreme variance of semantic fields of key terms used as compared with modern european languages. Kratylos is even more problematic because Plato uses his words in a technical sense, and uses them while he talks about them, without having a proper meta language at his disposition. Here are the semantic fields of some of the keywords used by Plato (based on Rost 1862):

onoma - name, denomination, appellation, designation,word, expression.
chraema - this semantic field denotes things of practical relevance and objects of human environment: thing, action, usage, money, belongings, happenings. There are many similar-sounding, similar-meaning words in the field: chreia, chreos, chreoo, chrae, chraezoo, chraestos, chraestes, chraeo. chraema was the term used by Protagoras. If the very global meaning of "thing" is substituted for the more specific sense of "objects of human environment" then we get the most obvious and commonsense statement of "the human is the measure of all objects of the human environment". No one would want to argue against this. Otherwise what would they be there for? Today, one would call that statement a core requirement of ergonomics.
pragma - things done, business, negotiation. This term is used by Kratylos. There is very slight variance to chraema, but it might be significant. The semantic field of pragma is a little more oriented towards process, dealings, and doings. The word praxis belongs to this field. Plato uses this term in the majority of places that are translated as "thing" .
onta, einai - being things. With the "to ti aen einai" the thingness of things starts to appear in Aristoteles. Plato uses this term sparingly (385b) and he does not seem to differentiate very much between the terms. The stoicheia as used in Kratylos and Timaios
In most translations of Plato's works, stoicheia and grammata are treated as synonyms: meaning letters of the alphabet. But for Plato, there is a quite marked distinction: when he talks about stoichea, he talks about spoken sounds, and when he says grammata, he means the written letter. The translation of Kratylos has to be treated carefully to yield any useful information of what Plato was talking about. The semantic field of stoichea is:

stoicheoma: element, fundamental building block, first principle
stoicheoo: to teach the basics
stoicheomata: the 12 signs of the zodiac
stoicheon: letter of the alphabet
stoichos: the rod or stylus of a sundial that casts the shadow by which the time is indicated on the dial

It is easy to see that the term is full of connotations from ancient cosmology. This subject has been treated in another of Plato's dialogues: Timaios. The first meaning of stoicheoma denotes the idea of a first principle of the cosmos . This is also called the archae . The zodiacal signs can be clarified in connection with the sundial . The sundial was introduced in Greece by Anaximander . He is also connected with the original formulation of the greek theory of the four elements and the apeiron (Hölscher 1989 , p. 172). The corresponding passage is in Timaios 48b:

Instead, as if we knew what really is the true nature of the fire , the water and the others, we talk about them as the origins (archa i), in a way that we equate them with the letters (the stoichea or original components) of the cosmos. But it is not adequate that the amateur may even compare them with the form of the syllables .

This passage shows direct correspondence with the Kratylos hypothesis. The four elements as Timaios describes them in the quotation, are also called stoichea. Anaximander had brought the sundial from Babylon . The dial is partitioned in 12 sections, like any modern clock is, corresponding to the 12 hours of the day. The 12-scheme of the hours corresponds to the 12-scheme of the months of the year and the 12 zodiacal signs wich are all of babylonian (or chaldean ) origin. In the world of antiquity, if one wanted to learn about astronomy/astrology , one went to Babylon , because here were the first and foremost experts of all the oikumene [239] on that subject. Timaios, who is the fictional narrator in that monologue, has been introduced to the group in 27a as the one who is the most expert of them on Astronomy/Astrology . Obviously Timaios must have been in Babylon to learn the basics (or stoicheoma ) of the story he is telling in Plato's Timaios, just like Anaximander before him. We now have one detail left to clarify: why and how might the word stoichea have acquired the meaning of letter-of-alphabet which is usually denoted by the word grammata ? Let us create a mental image of a sundial : We see a rod, or stylus, the sun shines, and the stylus casts a shadow. Then we call into memory another memorable fable of Plato , the cave parable . There, Plato talks about a big cave where miserable humans are chained fast to their seats so they cannot move and only watch the shadows dancing on the cave walls, forever entertaining themselves guessing what these shadows mean and what they stand for. The connection to the stoichea becomes immediately clear. The symbols of the alphabet are viewed as the shaped holes through which the pure light of the divine logos shines. The shadows that are cast on the dial of the sundial or the cave walls are the meanings of those symbols as we perceive them from our lowly perspective. Plato talks in Phaidros (276a) of the grammata as the shadow pictures of the living, animated logos . He uses a very subtle word-play here, the opposition of eidotos (true knowledge) and eidolon (shadow image):

Ton tou eidotos logon legeis, zonta kai enpsychon, ou ho gegrammenos eidolon an ti legoito dikaios
'You mean the living, ensouled speech, the logos, of the truly knowledgeable, of which the written version can only be looked at as shadow image?'

With all these indications and examples from different works, it is sure worth trying to formulate a hypothesis Plato's interesting speculation. The examples of Kratylos are taken from greek epos
When we look at the examples given in Kratylos for the similiarity of name and thing, we quickly see that Plato was careful to choose words that have no physical referent. He derives his terms mostly from greek mythology and the ethical domain. He starts out with the best known of the ancient greek aoidoi, as the poets, singers, and bards of greek antiquity were called: Homer as one of those people who are daemiourgon onomaton, or master in the art of forming words (390e). (This and all following locations are again from Kratylos). This gives a significant correspondence to the daemiourgos of Timaios who is creating the world. Then he goes through an assorted list of greek gods and heroes. In this, he follows the genealogy list as given by the other great aoide, Hesiodos, and in (409), he comes to the planets and stars, the four elements, and the four seasons. In (411) he talks about abstract and ethical terms like virtue, righteousness, etc. This gives an indication that Plato did not have the intention to show us the relations of names of physical objects but rather, to the thought and association structure contained in the greek mythologies. And here, it makes much more sense to speculate about a connection between the thing and the name and the sounds of the names: this structure was created and transmitted by the ancient aoidoi. Epic rhythm, meter, association, and the orality debate
So there is no problem to find a relation of the names to the phenomena perceived. The greek gods and mysteries literally "lived" in the rhymes and metres of ancient greek poetry, and it would be impossible to extract them from there. Another indication for this is Plato's use of pragma to denote the "things" . He doesn't talk about a thingness-in-itself as Kant may have postulated, but about a mental process [240] . That is exactly the case when reciting an epic text. While the text was recited, the mental imagery unfolded in the inner vision of the aoide and his audience. So the examples Plato refers to, his pragmata, were for the ancient greek audience of epics a true process, of the nervous system, and not concepts. In this respect, we can perceive an auto-poieitic element, as the sounds themselves create their meaning by rhythm, meter, and association. This subject has given rise to hot controversies in the classical philology community under the name of the orality debate. One side has been proposed by the followers of Milman Parry and researchers in the english speaking countries, while their opponents are located on the european continent, namely in Germany. There is not enough space for enlarging on this theme, the bibliography references in Latacz (1979), Parry (1930), Assmann (1983-1991d), and Havelock (1986-1990) contain most of the material. Also, Bolter (1990, 1991), Derrida (1974), Haarmann (1990, 1992), McLuhan (1972), and Mellaart (1989) may be referred for further information. Neurology, Epics, and the Brain Hemispheres
The question of self-stabilizing neuronal homeostatic patterns evoked by metered poetry has been treated by Turner and Pöppel (1988) (in Rentschler 1988, p. 71-90) and Barbara Lex "The Neurobiology of Ritual Trance" in (Lex 1979). In their paper, Turner and Pöppel make a strong case for the effects of metered poetry on the development of what they call "a wholesome, whole-brained" usage of the mind. Metered poetry has the capability of inducing the brain to a mode of functioning that is actually of a higher quality than the free-form prosaic mode of thinking that has become the norm in script based civilization. They point out:

Human society itself can be profoundly changed by the development of new ways of using the brain. Illustrative are the enormous socio-cultural consequences of the invention of the written word. In a sense, reading is a sort of new synthetic instinct, input that is reflexively transformed in to a program, crystallized into neural hardware, and incorporated as cultural loop into the human vervous circuit. This "new instinct" in turn profoundly changes the environment within which young human brains are programmed... our technology [functions] as a sort of supplementary nervous system. (p.75).
The fundamental unit of metered poetry is what we shall call the line... it is recognizable metrically and nearly always takes from two to four seconds to recite... The line is nearly always a rhythmic, semantic, and syntactical unit as well - a sentence, a colon, a clause, a phrase, or a completed group of these. Thus, other linguistic rhythms are accomodated to the basic acoustical rhythm, producing that pleasing sensation of appropriateness and inevitability, which is part of the delight of verse and aid to the memory. (p.76)
The second universal characteristic of human verse meter is that certain marked elements of the line or group of lines remain constant throughout the poem and thus indicate the repetition of a pattern. The 3-second cycle is not marked merely by a pause, but by distinct resemblances between the material in each cycle. Repetition is added to frequency to emphasize the rhythm. These constant elements may take many forms, the simplest of which is the number of syllables per line... Still other patterns are arranged around alliteration, consonance, assonance, and end rhyme. Often, many of these devices are used together, some prescribed by the conventions of a particular poetic form and others left to the discretion and inspiration of the individual poet. (p. 77)
The third universal characteristic of metrical poetry is variation. Variation is a temporary suspension of the metrical pattern at work in a given poem, a surprising, unexpected, and refreshing twist to that pattern... Meter is important in that it conveys meaning, much as melody does in a song. Metrical patterns are elements of an analogical structure, which is comprehended by the right cerebral hemisphere, while poetry as language is presumably processed by the left temporal lobe. If this hypothesis is correct, meter is partially a method of introducing right brain processes into the left brain activity of understanding language. In other words, it is a way of connecting our much more culture-bound linguistic capacities with relatively more primitive spatial recognition pattern recognition faculties, which we share with the higher animals. (p.77)
The imagery of the poem can become so intense that it is almost like a real sensory experience. Personal memories... are strongly evoked; there is often an emotional re-experience of close personal ties with family, friends, lovers, and the dead. There is an intense realization of the world and of human life, together with a strong sense of the reconciliation of opposites - joy and sorrow, life and death, good and evil, human and divine, reality and illusion, whole and part, comic and tragic, time and timelessness... There is a sense of power combined with effortlessness. The poet or reader rises above the word, so to speak, on the "viewless wings of poetry" and sees it all in its fullness and completeness, but without loss of the clarity of its details. There is an awareness of one's own physical nature, of one's birth and death, and of a curious transcendence of both, and, often, a strong feeling of universal and particular love and communal solidarity. (p.81-82)

To reinforce their hypothesis the authors turn to new and speculative fields of scientific inquiry, which are variously termed "neurobiology" , "biocybernetics" , and "psychobiology" . Quoting an Essay by Barbara Lex, "The Neurobiology of Ritual Trance", they state:
... various techniques of the alteration of mental states... are designed to add to the linear, analytic, and verbal resources of the left brain the more intuitive and holistic understanding of the right brain; to tune the central nervous system and alleviate accumulated stress; and bring to the aid of social solidarity and cultural values the powerful somatic and emotional forces mediated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and the ergotropic and trophotropic resources they control. (p.82)
The traditional concern of verse with the deepest human values - truth, goodness, and beauty - is clearly associated with its involvement with the brain's own motivational system. Poetry seems to be a device the brain can use in reflexively calibrating itself, turning its "hardware" into "software" , and vice versa... As a quintessentially cultural activity, poetry has been central to social learning and the synchronization of social activities. Poetry enforces cooperation between left brain temporal organization and right brain spatial organization and helps to bring about that integrated stereoscopic view that we call true understanding. Poetry is, par excellence, kalogenic - productive of beauty, of elegant, coherent, and predictively powerful models of the world. (p.84-85)

If we apply the scientific findings to our hypothesis of the societal role of the Epic Tradition, we get this surprising picture: The Aoidoi of the past Oral Age served a much more important function than history had allotted to them. They were the guardians of the sacred chants and poems whose purpose was much more than entertaining, or keeping a mythological record of the past, a sort of proto-history. They were the masters of the forgotten arts of attuning the soul with the body, of projecting the past and the future, and healing the cracks and fissures of human society. When civilization arose and humans adopted writing, the use of poetry as cultural memory system was quickly discarded and relegated to purely entertainment purposes. The important cathartic role played by theater, and especially tragedy, in ancient greek society is one of the last vestiges of this once vigorous tradition.

[212] Some articles on the main philosophical terms are given here:
[213] It seems as if the modern english word is a direct descendant of the old greek word.
[214] The traditional latin rendering of "logos" was "ratio et oratio".
[215] In ancient philosophy before the christian age, the roman philosophers tried to fit their terms to the greek terms, and the key term of philosophical discussion, "logos" posed a special problem since it had no direct latin equivalent.
[216] I am giving here a "greek" transliteration for those names instead of Anaximander, Plato, and Aristotle. This is non-standard for english philosophical texts, but I like the greek names better.
[217] An example is Klaus Mainzer's book on time - "Zeit". This is a work of scientific (physics) philosophy. The text contains no reference for human memory.
[218] Of course this is a personal opinion which I have come to after several decades of programming experience. There is no way a sophisticated method can substitute for clear thinking.
[219] See also the adaptation by Ken Wilber which I have referenced in Noology, Vol I.
[220] Although there are sub-schools ot mathematics which hold that even mathematical thruths are time-dependent conventions, most of the mathematicians are Platonists, even if they don't know what the term means. To be a Mathematician, involves a conviction that there must be some absolute truth, somewhere. Otherwise one wouldn't go through so many mental contortions to find it, or some more elegant expression (= formula) for it. Mathematics is in psychological parlance, based on an obsession with order and structure, and an abhorrence for insecurity and ambiguousness, or in other words, all those messy things that occur in the Real World and in Real Life of Human Wheelings and Dealings. And that was the dominant character trait of Platon the Philosopher. His psychological structure has, by this way, thus influenced a lot of western philosophy and science.
[221] With the theological themes I have dealt in my other writings. The connection between Platonic Philosophy and Theology has to do with the dominance of order and structure in the pantheon. See also the next footnote on "Kosmos". The Judeo/Christian theology unites all the factors of regularity and (law and) order in the Supreme God Jahve or Jehovah, whereas all the factors of irregularity und chaos are delegated to the demons and devils. This differentiates the Judeo/Christian theology from the pantheons of most other theologies of ancient civilizations where the Gods of Chaos were equally important and revered members of the pantheon. Eg. the Indian gods of time and destruction: Kala and Kali, the Asuras, or the Mesoamerican gods of rain and weather, (H)Uitzilopochtli, Tlaloc, etc. One main effort to reintroduce the principle of irregularity und chaos to western thinking was Goethe's character Mephistopheles, whom he introduced as incorporation of this suppressed arch-spirit and archae-elemental.
Nietzsche had identified a similar opposition in his work on the Dionysic and Apollinic factors of Greek mythology: "Die Geburt der Tragödie"
Keywods: "der Jünger eines noch "unbekannten Gottes", ...
"Antwort auf die Frage "was ist dionysisch?" ... "Nothwendigkeit der Traumerfahrung":
R.A. Wilson had elaborated on the same theme in the "Illuminatus" trilogy with his "Principle of Discordia" or Eris.
The painter W. Turner introduced this element into pictorial art. Instead of concentrating on the outlines, he focussed on the contrasts of color fields.
See also the references in my writings:
[222] The meaning of the ancient greek term Kosmos was, literally, decor(ation/um) and ornament, but was subsequently used philosophically, as a principle of (law and) Order to contra-distinguish it from the Chaos. Thus, the Kosmos was also synonymous for everything orderly in nature and the universe. Theology, philosophy and the sciences dealt for 2500 years mainly with these orderly factors, and only recently have the disorderly and chaotic elements of nature found entry into the halls of science under the name of Chaos Theory, Turbulent Fluid Dynamics, etc.
[223] The most interesting case of an obviously messy category system is the Chinese Encyclopedia of animals by Borges.
[224] More colloquially one can also call this ergonomic.
[225] Which comes from memory psychology and indicates how many otherwise meaningless items a normal human can remember. Of course, since Noology deals with Knowledge, ie. meaning, this psychological rule can only be applied with a grain of salt (cum grano salis).
[226] Apart from the technical usage in programming science, this method owes some credit to Gotthard Günther's Kenogrammatics.
[227] My own interpretation of the phonetic sound of these characters differs from conventional philological usage.
[228] The reason why I don't use the standard alphabetical ordering has to do with the sound slide factor. It is easier to pronounce aieou in one sliding sound. The ancient memory technologies are another reason which are dealt with in the next section.
[229] See for example my dissertation.
[230] "Pigeonholing" means a pigeon can be only in one hole, and cannot be in any other hole at the same time. The paradox of Schroedinger's cat is a quantum theory variant of the fuzzy set paradigm. In fuzzy set theory, Schroedinger's cat can be about 70 % alive and 30 % dead, all the while and at the same time.
[231] For reasons of graphic simplicity, the mathematical "element" symbol is here substituted with "e".
[232] Here we have a typical hen-egg question of the history of writing: It is commonly assumed in linguistics that the sound chi could only be corresponded with a cross-mark after the alphabet was invented. But since the cross-mark is probably one of the oldest ornamental symbols of all, to be found in the symbols of the Vinca culture predating the alphabet by 5000 years, it should not be ruled out altogether that there is an older connection of chi and cross. (Maria Gimbutas).
As a side line thought: The Chi compares to the Aleph by its looks quite like a child exercise that didn't get it right on first try.
[233] Again, it should be noted that this is not so by standard linguistic practice. But we have to remind here that we are not attempting standard linguistics.
[234] See the Flusser account in the appendix.
[235] This can also be equated with an ideology of prevalence of male elements, like they occur in patriarchic societies. In all of western and social natural history, the imprinting, or informing factor was considered more important, more valuable, etc. than the substrate factor.
[236] As they appear in the discussions of Aristoteles and Plato's Timaios.
[237] The pressing being a somewhat more robust variation of forming.
[238] Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek:
[239] the ancient world, known to the Greeks, later in Hellenistic times, the territories that had been under the rule of Alexander and his successors.
[240] In present-day constructivist cognitive neuronal theories, one would talk about neuronal connection and excitation structures, networks, and association maps, that are localized in specific brain regions.

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