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15.1. Abstract
15.2. Morphology and a universe of patterns
15.3. Knowledge and Cultural Memory
15.4. The Cultural Memory System (CMS)
15.5. Bibliography

15. Neuronal Pattern Mechanisms and the Semiotic Base

Dr. Andreas Goppold (URL)

Keywords: biosemiotics, neuronal resonance fields, neuronal infrastructure, neuronal patterns, morphology

15.1. Abstract

Recent research in biosemiotics corroborates Peirce's statement that "the universe is pervaded by signs if it doesn't wholly consist of signs". The present contribution will generalize the semiotic findings into a general systematics of pattern, after G. Bateson. (A morphology in the sense of Goethe). The term pattern has recently gained prominence as key term in understanding mankind's quest to make the universe intelligible, to fashion a Cosmos from the pure Chaos of the undiscriminate swarm of photons, electrons, air pressure changes, chemical and physical stimulants, that organisms are exposed to every instant of their living existence. On this facility are based not only the sciences, but also human society, and in the wider sense, life, and the lawfulness of the universe. Gregory Bateson's work is to be considered as trailblazer in this development. Pattern is the most general characterization of what an organism's experiential field consists of, i.e. a mix of impinging inputs registered by its sensory system. What the organism makes of its sensory input, is again a pattern, at least in animal life, since it is translated into a neuronal pattern of action potentials and synaptic connections. G. Bateson coined the name metapattern for hierarchical higher-order sets of patterns - there must exist some corresponding neuronal-synaptic pattern for all generated metapatterns. Symbols as used by humans are metapatterns of the highest order of abstraction, but they are dependent on the same neuronal infrastructure that is animating all animal life. A pattern is a Berkeleyan entity because its "existence" is defined as "esse est percipi". Berkeley's idealistic orientation is averted by the mechanisms of inter-organismic neuronal pattern coupling / -coherence as described by constructivist workers following the autopoietic paradigm of Maturana and Varela. The social coupling of innervated organisms can be described as neuronal resonance patterns and fields. Such fields extend throughout the temporal extension of the evolution of the biosphere, the transmission of phylogenetic and ontogenetic patterns.

15.2. Morphology and a universe of patterns

The term pattern is a key term in understanding mankind's quest to make the universe intelligible, to fashion a Cosmos from the pure Chaos of the undiscriminate swarm of photons, electrons, air pressure changes, chemical and physical stimulants, that organisms are exposed to every instant of their living existence. On this facility are based not only the sciences, but also human society, and in the wider sense, life, and the lawfulness of the universe. (Bresch (1980); Goppold (1999d); Schunk (1996); Spengler: Morphologie der Wissenschaften (1980: 548-553)). Gregory Bateson's work (1972-1986) is here considered as trailblazer of this development.
Bateson (1979: 18): We could have been told something about the pattern which connects: that all communication necessitates context, that without context, there is no meaning, and that contexts confer meaning because there is classification of contexts... So we come back to the patterns of connection and the more abstract, more general (and most empty) proposition that, indeed, there is a pattern of patterns of connection.

When introducing his famous paradigmatic statement: "a pattern that connects", Bateson refers to Goethe as source of inspiration (1979: 17, 18). Goethe's terms for "the patterns that connect" are Morphology and Metamorphosis. Goethe's view was pursued by the German workers of cultural morphology: Frobenius (Haberland 1973), and Spengler (1980). In America, a related approach was formulated, via influence of Franz Boas, by Ruth Benedict, with her famous work: "patterns of culture" (1934). Her work had in turn influenced Bateson's. (Bateson 1979: 211-212). The Goethean type of morphology (there are slightly different versions in many sciences) might be called the Gestalt tradition of morphology. Its earlier traces go back to Herder and Vico. (Straube 1990: 168), (Herder 1975: XVI-XVII), Berg (1990: 61). Severi's (1993: 309, 311-315) description sums up the essentially holistic and dynamic character of Goethe's conception of morphology.
Severi (1993: 314): Doch für Goethe ist jeder lebendige Organismus eine Ganzheit, die nicht auf die Summe ihrer Elemente reduziert werden kann... Diese spezifischen Formen, die das Reich des Lebendigen charakterisieren, ändern ihre Gestalten und folgen dabei einer von den Gesetzen der Physik unabhängigen Logik. Diese Logik kann nur von einer systematischen Morphologie enthüllt werden..

Riedl describes the obligation of modern biology to Goethe's work:
Riedl (1996c: 105): Morphology: since Goethe (1795), the methodology of comparing Gestalt and to generalize the Typus; the cognitive basis for comparative anatomy, taxonomy and phylogeny.
Riedl (1995: 114)...Goethe... tried to understand the principle underlying his ability to discern pattern.
Riedl (1995a): This year, 200 years have passed since GOETHE focused his attention on the path of discovery the mental/cognitive process which allows us to grasp synthetic concepts in morphology, comparative anatomy and taxonomy, to justify them and to estimate their probability. Since this cognitive and epistomological path has become an indispensable foundation for modern science, we hereby honour the anniversary with a translation and commentary of this treatise. Key words: GOETHE, morphology, typus, comparative anatomy, homology, epistemology.

Stafford Beer describes the essentially observer-dependent character of pattern:
Stafford Beer, in (Sieveking 1974, preface): What after all is order, or something systematic? I suppose it is a pattern, and a pattern has no objective existence anyway. A pattern is a pattern because someone declares a concatenation of items to be meaningful or cohesive. The onus for detecting systems, and for deciding how to describe them, is very much on ourselves. I do not think we can adequately regard a system as a fact of nature, truths about which can be gradually revealed by patient analytical research. A viable system is something we detect and understand when it is mapped into our brains, and I suppose the inevitable result is that our brains themselves actually impose a structure on reality.

In his work "Impossibility", John Barrow points out the universal importance of pattern perception and generation as the foundation of mathematics, which he describes as the base of the modern exact sciences. (Barrow 1998: 5-6, 57-58, 89, 190-193):
Barrow (1998: 192): The inevitability of pattern in any cognizable Universe means that there can exist descriptions of all these patterns. There can even be patterns in the collections of patterns, and so on. In order to describe these patterns, we need a catalogue of all possible patterns. And that catalogue we call mathematics. Its existence is not therefore a mystery: it is inevitable. In any universe in which order of any sort exists, and hence in any life-supporting universe, there must be pattern, and so there must be mathematics.

A definition of mathematics is quoted by (Allot (www)):
"A contemporary definition is that mathematics is the science of pattern and deductive structure (replacing an older definition of mathematics as the science of quantity and space)."

15.2.1. Patterns, Neuro-Aesthetics, and Neuro-Semiotics

More support for the general principle of pattern (or paradigm, according to Kuhn 1962) can be found in present neuronal research of cognition, also called Neuro-Aesthetics, and Neuro-Semiotics. (Brock (1994), Breidbach (1993-1997)). According to this recent work, cognitive orientation and action of innervated organisms is effected by neuronal activation patterns, consisting of oscillation fields and logical relation structures of neuronal assemblies, treated formally as coupled dynamic systems and neuronal attractors. These are specifically characterized by their space-time-dynamics. In the present context, these phenomena are also called neuronal resonance patterns, and as higher-order hierarchical aggregates, patterns of patterns: metapatterns. (Volk 1995). Thus, pattern is the "infrastructure" of neuronal processing happening in our brains, below, and a few miliseconds before our working consciousness experiences the "phainomena" and "noumena", the Gestalten of discernible impressions and thoughts. (Goppold (1999d); Klages (1981, I: 57-60)).

More WWW material on pattern, meta-morphology, and neuronal resonance: (URL) (URL) (URL)

15.2.2. Pattern Transmission Classes: Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic

Viewed from the most general thermodynamic perspective (Vernadsky (1930, 1997), Straub 1990), the main characteristic of life is: the activity of self-replicating dissipative structures, to maintain their patterns against the entropic force of dissolution, to propagate them, and to evolve them to greater complexity. This view has in an earlier version already been formulated by Spinoza (Hoffmeyer (1996: 138)). The genetic material transmitted in the organisms of the biosphere can be abstracted as a "Pattern Transmission Class" defined by the laws of the phylogenetic transmission as spelled out in molecular genetics. The present formulation derives from statements of various workers: Prigogine (1984); Straub (1990); Schrödinger (1946: 68-75) ch. VI: "Order, disorder and entropy"; Frei Otto : "Naturverständnis" (1985: 30): "Jede lebende Ordnung ist der Tendenz zur Destruktion abgewonnen."; Tipler (1994: 282-296).

Biosemiotics (Sharov) interprets the events taking place in the biosphere (Hofkirchner 1997, Vernadsky 1930, 1997) under the aspect of sign exchanges between organisms (aka the Semiosphere: Hoffmeyer 1997, Lotman 1990) and within their bodies (Endosemiotics: Posner 1997: 464-487). In his overview article on biosemiotics, Thure v. Uexküll describes the health of an organism with the fluent and efficient integration and functioning of all the multitudinous communication activities of all its subsystems on and across all hierarchical levels, and he defines illness as deviation from this communicative "communion" (Uexküll 1997, 454).

In the diction of Maturana and Luhmann (1993), social systems and proto-social systems arise in the behavioral coupling of organisms, which is another way of looking at the Semiosphere. The Semiosphere is thus another name for all behavioral pattern transmissions of the biosphere. In the case of organisms with higher neuronal systems, like mammals and birds, the behavioral coupling is effected by Neuronal Resonance. In the diction of Pattern Transmission Classes, this is the realm Ontogenetic Transmission, of learned behavior between organisms, most notably between parent and child generations.

15.2.3. 15.2.3. Spatio-Temporal Perspective: The Ordering of Pattern Transmission Classes

"Our virtues lie in the interpretation of the time."
(Shakespeare, Coriolanus, IV, 7.)

If we take the stance of a temporal perspective view, looking back into the past, we can discern the following order of pattern transmission classes which can be arranged, cum grano salis, in a logarithmic scale of factor-ten steps (except the last one):

Related material on the WWW: (URL)

15.2.4. The Event Landscape - A Perspective over Time

Using a term by Paul Virilio (1998), the above perspective view can be called an Event Landscape. It is like the view from a high mountain, as that related by Petrarca 1335 on the summit of Mt. Ventoux (Gebser 1973: 38-45), or that related in the Bible in Matth 4,3-11 and Luc. 4,3-13. It is the grand panorama over the history of the universe, of which Heraklit said in B 64: ta de panta oiakizei Keraunos. It is a perspective that can rightly only be enjoyed by God, because it is too good for us mere mortals.

Virilio (1998): Für Gott ist die Geschichte eine Ereignislandschaft. Für ihn gibt es keine Abfolge, weil alles gleichzeitig da ist... Diese nur schwer vorstellbare transhistorische Landschaft erstreckt sich über alle Zeitalter hinweg, von einer Ewigkeit bis zur anderen. Und dieser kaum denkbaren Zone entspringen seit Anbeginn der Zeit die Generationen, die sich durch ihren beständigen Wandel gegen den Horizont einer ewigen Gegenwart abzeichnen... Eine Zeitlandschaft, in der die Ereignisse unversehens an die Stelle der Oberflächengestalt... treten, in der Vergangenheit und Zukunft aus ein und derselben Bewegung hervorgehen und ihre Gleichzeitigkeit offensichtlich zutage tritt.

15.2.5. 15.2.5. The Eye on the Pyramid as Symbol of Temporality and Orientation

The Event Landscape re-appears in that famous symbol which appears on every US One-Dollar bill: The Eye on the Pyramid. (This is interpreted here in a different meaning than what the Freemason influenced US founding fathers had in mind). The following are the distinctive phases of human temporal orientation:

A: The Present - The "Now" - The Cogent Moment (Salthe 1985, 1993)
The Present is the focus of all existence. We cannot act and think but in the Now, and also Memory, the mental projections of a Past, and Expectation, the projections of a Future, can only happen in the present moment. In German, the Now is called "der Augen-Blick", which again leads us back to the old symbolism. In neurological terms, the Now is governed by a temporal coherence function spanning about three seconds: "the three second consciousness" (Pöppel 1993).

B: The Past
B1: Personal Memory
B2: Collective Ontogenetic / Cultural Memory
B3: Phylogenetic Memory, Genetic Heritage, Instincts

C: The Future: The Expectation

D: The Forgetting, Death, Dissolution of Memory

15.2.6. The Neo-Ptolemaic Geospheric embedding of Pattern Transmission Classes

According to Vernadsky and his succes sors, we can alternatively picture this embedding in a geospheric projection scheme (Vernadsky (1997: 26), Vernadsky (1930)). This scheme is, of course, patterned after the old Ptolemaic cosmology. (Spengler (1980: 621); Spektrum d. Wissenschaft, Jan. 1993, p. 84: "Schädelsche Weltchronik von 1493"; Lippe (1997: 181, 187)). In Lippe's work, we also find an elaboration of how the ancient conceptual patterns repeat or recur in modern intellectual history.

(Cosmo- (Iono- (Strato- (Atmo- (Hydro- (Litho- (Geo-sphere)))))))

Since the Biosphere is primarily water based, it can be viewed as an extension of the Hydrosphere. It contains the following sub-spheres:

(Bio- (Oiko- (Semio- (Anthropo- (Ethno- (Noo- sphere)))))

In this view, the Oikosphere is just another aspect of the Biosphere, namely its view from the "inter-organic" domain, ie. the mainfold of all (energetic, material, chemical...) connections and relations of all organisms with all others. The Semiosphere is the mainfold of all sign exchange processes of all organisms. The Anthroposphere is defined after (Gumilev (1987: 360)):

"In this perspective mankind is regarded as a certain covering of the planet Earth or as part of the biosphere... the anthroposphere... the biomass of all people together with the products of their activity... domestic animals, cultivated plants... the anthoposphere is ... a mosaic [consisting of] ... collections of persons."

The Ethnosphere is the mainfold of all human cultural patterns after Gumilev (1990: 175), and the Noosphere is the mainfold of all higher human symbolic activities. (Vernadsky (1997: 155), Hofkirchner (1997)).

15.3. Knowledge and Cultural Memory

In the world of day-to-day pragmatic requirements, and of sheer survival, knowledge is that essence of hard-won experience and learning which has been handed down not only through the countless generations of human ancestry, but also in the organic genetic lineage right from the very start of life, about 3-4 billion years ago. Knowledge is an aspect of the more general phenomenon of memory. Cassirer (1960: 68-69) cites Hering: "Memory is to be considered a general function of all organic matter." Bateson thematizes this in his metalogue on instinct (1972: 38-58). Knowledge is an aspect of Cultural Memory (CM), as described in the works of Assmann&Assmann (1983-1993), Bergson (1919), Connerton (1989), Halbwachs (1985), Harth (1991).

15.3.1. Cultural patterns as immortality complexes

Dennett (1990) points out one essential property of cultural patterns (which he calls memes): they are potentially immortal.

Dennett (1990): Memes, like genes, are potentially immortal, but, like genes, they depend on the existence of a continuous chain of physical vehicles, persisting in the face of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. [material carriers]... tend to dissolve in time. As with genes, immortality is more a matter of replication than of the longevity of individual vehicles... Brute physical replication of vehicles is not enough to ensure meme longevity... for the time being, memes still depend at least indirectly on one or more of their vehicles... a human mind.

(Wright 1994: 157): The only potentially immortal inorganic entity is a gene (or, strictly speaking, the pattern of information encoded in the gene, since the physical gene itself will pass away after conveying the pattern through replication).

In the present study, cultural patterns are said to form immortality complexes. Cultural patterns share this property with the genetic patterns of the DNA molecules, which Dawkins (1976) had therefore awarded the attribute "The Selfish Gene". Whether such a character trait can at all be attributed to some otherwise quite harmless strings of nucleotic acid, is a discussion for which this is not the place. The observation is indeed, that the patterns of life forms have enjoyed a fairly good constancy as long as our cultural memory will attest to (the rhinocerosses, antelopes, bisons and horses in Altamira and other caves look pretty much the same as they do now) (Anati 1991), and what comparisons of fossil bones with those of presently living species can tell us.

Within the cultural memory of humanity, we can also conclude, that certain cultural patterns have endured for a very long time indeed: The Australian Aboriginal rituals, which are, to the claim of the Aboriginals themselves, tens of thousands of years old (Strehlow 1947-1971), and the rites of the major religions of the world that are one to several thousand years old, the Vedic and Parsee: Staal (1982), (1986), (1989), the Jewish: Assmann (1992: 196-255), and the Christian (Encarta : Christianity), and Islam (Encarta : Islam, Muhammad). And, as we see from the example of ritual, these patterns depend in their transmission from the past into the future on the humans to perform (enlive) them. A central aspect of cultural memory could be characterized as: CM is that of the personal memories which doesn't die with the person who is dying. Since cultural patterns are also the cultural memory, we thus come to the pact or bargain (pistis) that is being struck between the mortal humans as living agents in the transmission of the (potentially) immortal patterns: the humans can gain a piece of that immortality for themselves. In this way, we can re-interpret the significance of those very old and venerable rituals that the most long-lived traditions of humanity have upheld during all those millennia. To be a transmitter of cultural patterns is a virtual equivalent of an "Alternative to the immortality of the Soul".

15.4. The Cultural Memory System (CMS)

The Cultural Memory System (CMS) is the systematic theoretical account of those processes and structures by which the Cultural Memory CM arises and operates. [44]

15.4.1. The dual perspectives of the CMS

The CMS can be viewed from two different perspectives, which are dual aspects of the same phenomenon, [45] much as wave and particle are dual aspects of the same physical phenomenon:

1. the Cultural Memory (CM) view, of the individual humans, and
2. the Cultural Pattern (CP) view, the intersubjective aspect.

The Cultural Memory view

ad 1.: In the Cultural Memory view, the CMS refers to those processes and structures by which personal subjective memory material is exchanged between individuals and across generations and made available on an intersubjective basis. It is the diachronic aspect of Cultural Transmission. [46] In ethnological diction, it is the emic view, and philosophically, it is based on intentionality. From the subjective viewpoint, it is that faculty by which one individual can {reference to / learn from / participate in} the memory content of (an)other individual(s), even without direct personal contact, e.g. when they live in a distant place, or in the distant past.

The starting point for the concept of Cultural Memory are the works by Aleida and Jan Assmann (1983-1992), Cassirer (1954-1985), Yates (1989, 1990), Connerton (1989), and Halbwachs (1985). References on memory: Schmidt (1991), Harth (1991), Norman (1970-1982), Bergson (1919), Heinz v. Foerster (1985: 133-172) "Gedächtnis ohne Aufzeichnung", Johnson (1991), Illich (1988: 14-28).

The Cultural Pattern view

ad 2.: in the Cultural Pattern view as intersubjective position, it is called the culture pattern replicator system, those processes and structures by which cultural patterns are maintained, exchanged, and transmitted in populations (synchronic) and across generations (diachronic). In ethnological diction, it is the etic view. The cultural pattern view is here called a morphology, in the sense that morphology is a theoretical tool for the study of pattern {maintenance / replication / perception} in the most general sense. Related material under:

Douglas (1970: 11): A symbol only has meaning from its relation to other symbols in a pattern. The pattern gives the meaning. Therefore no one item in the pattern can carry meaning by itself isolated from the rest.

15.4.2. The basic typology of CMS: somatic and extrasomatic factors, sensory modalities

The typology of CMS has to account for the different ways and means by which CM is manifested, maintained or stored, and transmitted.

The most basic distinction is according to
1. somatic and
2. extrasomatic factors.

ad 1.: Somatic Factors are those concerning CM as an affair of the human memory, and the human body and its facilities, the nervous system, the brain, the sense organs and sensory modalities, etc. Another term used in this context is incarnat/-ed/-ion, for: factors bound in the bodily flesh. A further basic differentiation can be made into the different impressive and expressive sensory modalities available to the human body.

ad 2.: Extrasomatic Factors are those of the intersubjective domain, or of the external media, here also called the Cultural Memory Media CMM. All communication between organisms takes place through some medium. The primary medium is the body, and in performative modes, without material storage, as in dance or song, there is the physical medium of air, light, or sound, between the sender and receiver. The various types of CMM can be classed according to their technical and informational properties, and along the line of the sensory modalities.

15.4.3. Extrasomatic factors: the typology of Cultural Memory

Media (CMM)
In the most general sense, the Cultural Memory Media CMM is that aspect of the CMS that can in any way be observed from the intersubjective position, the extrasomatic aspect of the CMS. The concept of medium is further treated in Böhme-Dürr (1997), Posner (1997: 228-229). More references with many types of CMM in semiotic categories: Posner (1997), and Noeth (1985). The research of SFB 511 (Sonderforschungsbereich Literatur und Anthropologie, Universität Konstanz) maintains a large database on CMM research (SFB-511 1995).

Static vs. performative CMM

The Cultural Memory Media (CMM) can then be classed into static and material vs. performative and dynamic ones:

The static CMM are those involving a (more or less) enduring carrier material.

The performative CMM, also called ephemeral or dynamic.

Before the introduction of technological media like film, audio recording, and computerized multimedia, the material CMM allowed only static representations. Writing is the best known and most widely used application of such static CMM. The overt and covert influences of this factor of stasis in material CMM is of prime importance for the present study.

Cultural Memory Technology: CMT

The Cultural Memory Technology CMT: systematic use of static material extrasomatic devices (CMM) specifically for transmitting CM. Writing is the prime Cultural Memory Technology of civilizations.

A table view of the main types of cultural memory media

The typology of CMM can be shown in a diagrammatic ordering according to those main categories:

I. verbal language oriented [47]
II. non-verbal language oriented


a. using markings in/on material storage, with more or less permanent material substrates, static
b. performative based on human-to-human transmission, ephemeral, and dynamic

This classification can be mapped in a table serving as a general coordinate system for overall orientation and overview. It leaves out the different sensory modalities which will be treated in the next subsection. We can diagram it in the following way:

The term "oral" tradition is used in quotation marks, as the term is used in the literature for many different, not only verbal, non-written transmissions. The following systematic will provide a more detailed classification. The element of ritual is drawn as to intersect the categorical ordering, as it does in real life. In common use, ritual is usually multimedial, with acted performance, and often with song, music and dance as dominant elements. Hanna (1979: 198), Aquili (1979). Discursive prosa speech, the recording of which is the main purpose of writing, is not the most important element in ritual (Staal 1986: 252). Ritual is placed partly outside the CMM ordering grid, since it transcends the categorization. It indicates primary CMS mechanisms that are deeper than what can be conveyed with the semantic content of spoken prosa language, and which will lead into areas where we cannot tread with the alphabet.

Noeth (1985: 350-351): Nonverbale Kommunikation erweist sich hier nicht als Alternative oder Ergänzung zur Sprache, sondern als ein der Sprache semiotisch überlegenes Ausdrucksmedium.

The general classification of the spectrum of CMM

Another display of the different categories of CMM can be made in a more detailed hierarchy mode, and by further combining the four main categories with the different sensory / somatic modalities.

Sensory / somatic modalities

1. Auditive
2. Visual
3. Kinesthetic
4. Tactile
5. Olfactory (smell)
6. Taste (gustatory)

Non-specific somatic modalities

7. Para- (non-) senses
8. Electro / magnetic
9. Existential

Cross product of Modalities and CMM

Combined with the different modalities, we arrive at the spectrum of CMM:

1. verbal language oriented, material carrier, visual, color-insensitive
1.1. writing (phonographic, non-phonographic)

1.1.1. phonographic writing: non-alphabetic

1.1.2. phonographic writing: alphabetic

1.1.3. non-phonographic writing (pictographic, iconic, ideographic, logographic, etc.)

2. verbal language oriented, performative, auditive
2.1. "oral" tradition
2.1.1. epic poetry, laws, prayers, oaths
2.1.2. folk tradition: fairy tales, myths, riddles, jokes, insults, swear words, spells

3. verbal language oriented, various modes
3.1. material carrier, tactile
3.1.1. Braille (Encarta: Braille), Noeth (1985: 364-365)
3.2. performative, auditive, non-vocal
3.2.1. drumming and whistle "language" (speech-surrogates)
3.3. performative, visual
3.3.1. sign languages, Noeth (1985: 280-291)

4. non-language oriented, material carrier
4.1. visual color-insensitive
4.1.1. operational symbolic: mathematical, engineering
4.1.2. abstract symbolic: e.g. music, and dance scripts
4.1.3. geometrical, pictorial, diagrammatic, iconic, technical drawing
4.1.4. non-semantic, symbolic: ornament
4.2. visual color-sensitive
4.2.1. pictorial: painting
4.2.2. abstract: Inca quipu and other Amerind CMM
4.3. tactile
4.3.1. craft traditions
4.3.2. Inca quipu, numeric knot systems, rosary

4.4. olfactory (smell): perfumery
4.5. gustatory (taste): cooking
4.6. mixed-mode, and non-classified
4.7. media technologies, Multimedia, 4d (moving, changing) displays
4.7.1. visual media technology
4.7.2. auditive media technology
4.7.3. other sensory modality media technology

5. non-language oriented, performative
5.1. gestic
5.2. tactile
5.2.1. massage
5.2.2. torture
5.2.3. marital (sexual) arts
5.4. kinesic:
5.4.1. dance
5.4.2. martial arts
5.4.3. marital (sexual) arts
5.4.4. gymnastics
5.5. auditive: music, rhythm, drumming
6. multimedial forms, ritual

15.5. Bibliography

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Goppold, A.: Neuronal Resonance and UI Technology, (1997a) (URL)
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[44] See also: (URL)
[45] See also: Luhmann (1993: 292)
[46] See also: Spengler (1980: 738-738)
[47] Spoken verbal language in this sense: as everything consisting in the production of certain patterns of sounds, which we call words that can be written down with an alphabet.

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